emitbc.c 33.4 KB
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/*
 * This file is part of the Micro Python project, http://micropython.org/
 *
 * The MIT License (MIT)
 *
 * Copyright (c) 2013, 2014 Damien P. George
 *
 * Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
 * of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
 * in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
 * to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
 * copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
 * furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
 *
 * The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
 * all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
 *
 * THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
 * IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
 * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
 * AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
 * LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
 * OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN
 * THE SOFTWARE.
 */

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#include <stdbool.h>
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#include <stdint.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <assert.h>

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#include "mpconfig.h"
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#include "misc.h"
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#include "qstr.h"
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#include "lexer.h"
#include "parse.h"
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#include "obj.h"
#include "emitglue.h"
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#include "scope.h"
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#include "runtime0.h"
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#include "emit.h"
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#include "bc0.h"
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#if !MICROPY_EMIT_CPYTHON

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#define BYTES_FOR_INT ((BYTES_PER_WORD * 8 + 6) / 7)
#define DUMMY_DATA_SIZE (BYTES_FOR_INT)

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struct _emit_t {
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    pass_kind_t pass : 8;
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    mp_uint_t last_emit_was_return_value : 8;
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    int stack_size;

    scope_t *scope;

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    mp_uint_t last_source_line_offset;
    mp_uint_t last_source_line;
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    mp_uint_t max_num_labels;
    mp_uint_t *label_offsets;
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    mp_uint_t code_info_offset;
    mp_uint_t code_info_size;
    mp_uint_t bytecode_offset;
    mp_uint_t bytecode_size;
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    byte *code_base; // stores both byte code and code info
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    // Accessed as mp_uint_t, so must be aligned as such
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    byte dummy_data[DUMMY_DATA_SIZE];
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};

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STATIC void emit_bc_rot_two(emit_t *emit);
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STATIC void emit_bc_rot_three(emit_t *emit);
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emit_t *emit_bc_new(mp_uint_t max_num_labels) {
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    emit_t *emit = m_new0(emit_t, 1);
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    emit->max_num_labels = max_num_labels;
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    emit->label_offsets = m_new(mp_uint_t, emit->max_num_labels);
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    return emit;
}
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void emit_bc_free(emit_t *emit) {
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    m_del(mp_uint_t, emit->label_offsets, emit->max_num_labels);
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    m_del_obj(emit_t, emit);
}

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STATIC void emit_write_uint(emit_t* emit, byte*(*allocator)(emit_t*, int), mp_uint_t val) {
    // We store each 7 bits in a separate byte, and that's how many bytes needed
    byte buf[BYTES_FOR_INT];
    byte *p = buf + sizeof(buf);
    // We encode in little-ending order, but store in big-endian, to help decoding
    do {
        *--p = val & 0x7f;
        val >>= 7;
    } while (val != 0);
    byte* c = allocator(emit, buf + sizeof(buf) - p);
    while (p != buf + sizeof(buf) - 1) {
        *c++ = *p++ | 0x80;
    }
    *c = *p;
}

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// all functions must go through this one to emit code info
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STATIC byte* emit_get_cur_to_write_code_info(emit_t* emit, int num_bytes_to_write) {
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    //printf("emit %d\n", num_bytes_to_write);
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    if (emit->pass < MP_PASS_EMIT) {
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        emit->code_info_offset += num_bytes_to_write;
        return emit->dummy_data;
    } else {
        assert(emit->code_info_offset + num_bytes_to_write <= emit->code_info_size);
        byte *c = emit->code_base + emit->code_info_offset;
        emit->code_info_offset += num_bytes_to_write;
        return c;
    }
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}

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STATIC void emit_align_code_info_to_machine_word(emit_t* emit) {
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    emit->code_info_offset = (emit->code_info_offset + sizeof(mp_uint_t) - 1) & (~(sizeof(mp_uint_t) - 1));
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}

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STATIC void emit_write_code_info_uint(emit_t* emit, mp_uint_t val) {
    emit_write_uint(emit, emit_get_cur_to_write_code_info, val);
}

STATIC void emit_write_code_info_qstr(emit_t* emit, qstr qst) {
    emit_write_uint(emit, emit_get_cur_to_write_code_info, qst);
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}

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#if MICROPY_ENABLE_SOURCE_LINE
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STATIC void emit_write_code_info_bytes_lines(emit_t* emit, mp_uint_t bytes_to_skip, mp_uint_t lines_to_skip) {
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    assert(bytes_to_skip > 0 || lines_to_skip > 0);
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    //printf("  %d %d\n", bytes_to_skip, lines_to_skip);
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    while (bytes_to_skip > 0 || lines_to_skip > 0) {
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        mp_uint_t b, l;
        if (lines_to_skip <= 6) {
            // use 0b0LLBBBBB encoding
            b = MIN(bytes_to_skip, 0x1f);
            l = MIN(lines_to_skip, 0x3);
            *emit_get_cur_to_write_code_info(emit, 1) = b | (l << 5);
        } else {
            // use 0b1LLLBBBB 0bLLLLLLLL encoding (l's LSB in second byte)
            b = MIN(bytes_to_skip, 0xf);
            l = MIN(lines_to_skip, 0x7ff);
            byte *ci = emit_get_cur_to_write_code_info(emit, 2);
            ci[0] = 0x80 | b | ((l >> 4) & 0x70);
            ci[1] = l;
        }
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        bytes_to_skip -= b;
        lines_to_skip -= l;
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    }
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}
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#endif
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// all functions must go through this one to emit byte code
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STATIC byte* emit_get_cur_to_write_bytecode(emit_t* emit, int num_bytes_to_write) {
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    //printf("emit %d\n", num_bytes_to_write);
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    if (emit->pass < MP_PASS_EMIT) {
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        emit->bytecode_offset += num_bytes_to_write;
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        return emit->dummy_data;
    } else {
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        assert(emit->bytecode_offset + num_bytes_to_write <= emit->bytecode_size);
        byte *c = emit->code_base + emit->code_info_size + emit->bytecode_offset;
        emit->bytecode_offset += num_bytes_to_write;
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        return c;
    }
}

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STATIC void emit_align_bytecode_to_machine_word(emit_t* emit) {
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    emit->bytecode_offset = (emit->bytecode_offset + sizeof(mp_uint_t) - 1) & (~(sizeof(mp_uint_t) - 1));
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}

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STATIC void emit_write_bytecode_byte(emit_t* emit, byte b1) {
    byte* c = emit_get_cur_to_write_bytecode(emit, 1);
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    c[0] = b1;
}

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STATIC void emit_write_bytecode_uint(emit_t* emit, mp_uint_t val) {
    emit_write_uint(emit, emit_get_cur_to_write_bytecode, val);
}

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STATIC void emit_write_bytecode_byte_byte(emit_t* emit, byte b1, byte b2) {
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    assert((b2 & (~0xff)) == 0);
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    byte* c = emit_get_cur_to_write_bytecode(emit, 2);
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    c[0] = b1;
    c[1] = b2;
}

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// Similar to emit_write_bytecode_uint(), just some extra handling to encode sign
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STATIC void emit_write_bytecode_byte_int(emit_t* emit, byte b1, mp_int_t num) {
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte(emit, b1);
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    // We store each 7 bits in a separate byte, and that's how many bytes needed
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    byte buf[BYTES_FOR_INT];
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    byte *p = buf + sizeof(buf);
    // We encode in little-ending order, but store in big-endian, to help decoding
    do {
        *--p = num & 0x7f;
        num >>= 7;
    } while (num != 0 && num != -1);
    // Make sure that highest bit we stored (mask 0x40) matches sign
    // of the number. If not, store extra byte just to encode sign
    if (num == -1 && (*p & 0x40) == 0) {
        *--p = 0x7f;
    } else if (num == 0 && (*p & 0x40) != 0) {
        *--p = 0;
    }

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    byte* c = emit_get_cur_to_write_bytecode(emit, buf + sizeof(buf) - p);
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    while (p != buf + sizeof(buf) - 1) {
        *c++ = *p++ | 0x80;
    }
    *c = *p;
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}

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STATIC void emit_write_bytecode_byte_uint(emit_t* emit, byte b, mp_uint_t val) {
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte(emit, b);
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    emit_write_uint(emit, emit_get_cur_to_write_bytecode, val);
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}

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STATIC void emit_write_bytecode_prealigned_ptr(emit_t* emit, void *ptr) {
    mp_uint_t *c = (mp_uint_t*)emit_get_cur_to_write_bytecode(emit, sizeof(mp_uint_t));
    // Verify thar c is already uint-aligned
    assert(c == MP_ALIGN(c, sizeof(mp_uint_t)));
    *c = (mp_uint_t)ptr;
}

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// aligns the pointer so it is friendly to GC
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STATIC void emit_write_bytecode_byte_ptr(emit_t* emit, byte b, void *ptr) {
    emit_write_bytecode_byte(emit, b);
    emit_align_bytecode_to_machine_word(emit);
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    mp_uint_t *c = (mp_uint_t*)emit_get_cur_to_write_bytecode(emit, sizeof(mp_uint_t));
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    // Verify thar c is already uint-aligned
    assert(c == MP_ALIGN(c, sizeof(mp_uint_t)));
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    *c = (mp_uint_t)ptr;
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}

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/* currently unused
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STATIC void emit_write_bytecode_byte_uint_uint(emit_t* emit, byte b, mp_uint_t num1, mp_uint_t num2) {
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte(emit, b);
    emit_write_bytecode_byte_uint(emit, num1);
    emit_write_bytecode_byte_uint(emit, num2);
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}
*/

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STATIC void emit_write_bytecode_byte_qstr(emit_t* emit, byte b, qstr qst) {
    emit_write_bytecode_byte_uint(emit, b, qst);
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}

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// unsigned labels are relative to ip following this instruction, stored as 16 bits
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STATIC void emit_write_bytecode_byte_unsigned_label(emit_t* emit, byte b1, mp_uint_t label) {
    mp_uint_t bytecode_offset;
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    if (emit->pass < MP_PASS_EMIT) {
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        bytecode_offset = 0;
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    } else {
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        bytecode_offset = emit->label_offsets[label] - emit->bytecode_offset - 3;
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    }
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    byte *c = emit_get_cur_to_write_bytecode(emit, 3);
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    c[0] = b1;
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    c[1] = bytecode_offset;
    c[2] = bytecode_offset >> 8;
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}

// signed labels are relative to ip following this instruction, stored as 16 bits, in excess
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STATIC void emit_write_bytecode_byte_signed_label(emit_t* emit, byte b1, mp_uint_t label) {
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    int bytecode_offset;
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    if (emit->pass < MP_PASS_EMIT) {
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        bytecode_offset = 0;
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    } else {
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        bytecode_offset = emit->label_offsets[label] - emit->bytecode_offset - 3 + 0x8000;
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    }
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    byte* c = emit_get_cur_to_write_bytecode(emit, 3);
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    c[0] = b1;
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    c[1] = bytecode_offset;
    c[2] = bytecode_offset >> 8;
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_set_native_type(emit_t *emit, mp_uint_t op, mp_uint_t arg1, qstr arg2) {
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_start_pass(emit_t *emit, pass_kind_t pass, scope_t *scope) {
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    emit->pass = pass;
    emit->stack_size = 0;
    emit->last_emit_was_return_value = false;
    emit->scope = scope;
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    emit->last_source_line_offset = 0;
    emit->last_source_line = 1;
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    if (pass < MP_PASS_EMIT) {
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        memset(emit->label_offsets, -1, emit->max_num_labels * sizeof(mp_uint_t));
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    }
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    emit->bytecode_offset = 0;
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    emit->code_info_offset = 0;

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    // Write code info size as compressed uint.  If we are not in the final pass
    // then space for this uint is reserved in emit_bc_end_pass.
    if (pass == MP_PASS_EMIT) {
        emit_write_code_info_uint(emit, emit->code_info_size);
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    }

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    // write the name and source file of this function
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    emit_write_code_info_qstr(emit, scope->simple_name);
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    emit_write_code_info_qstr(emit, scope->source_file);
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    // bytecode prelude: argument names (needed to resolve positional args passed as keywords)
    // we store them as full word-sized objects for efficient access in mp_setup_code_state
    // this is the start of the prelude and is guaranteed to be aligned on a word boundary
    {
        for (int i = 0; i < scope->num_pos_args + scope->num_kwonly_args; i++) {
            emit_write_bytecode_prealigned_ptr(emit, MP_OBJ_NEW_QSTR(scope->id_info[i].qst));
        }
    }

    // bytecode prelude: local state size and exception stack size
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    {
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        mp_uint_t n_state = scope->num_locals + scope->stack_size;
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        if (n_state == 0) {
            // Need at least 1 entry in the state, in the case an exception is
            // propagated through this function, the exception is returned in
            // the highest slot in the state (fastn[0], see vm.c).
            n_state = 1;
        }
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        emit_write_bytecode_uint(emit, n_state);
        emit_write_bytecode_uint(emit, scope->exc_stack_size);
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    }

    // bytecode prelude: initialise closed over variables
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    int num_cell = 0;
    for (int i = 0; i < scope->id_info_len; i++) {
        id_info_t *id = &scope->id_info[i];
        if (id->kind == ID_INFO_KIND_CELL) {
            num_cell += 1;
        }
    }
    assert(num_cell <= 255);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte(emit, num_cell); // write number of locals that are cells
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    for (int i = 0; i < scope->id_info_len; i++) {
        id_info_t *id = &scope->id_info[i];
        if (id->kind == ID_INFO_KIND_CELL) {
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            emit_write_bytecode_byte(emit, id->local_num); // write the local which should be converted to a cell
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        }
    }
}

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STATIC void emit_bc_end_pass(emit_t *emit) {
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    // check stack is back to zero size
    if (emit->stack_size != 0) {
        printf("ERROR: stack size not back to zero; got %d\n", emit->stack_size);
    }

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    *emit_get_cur_to_write_code_info(emit, 1) = 0; // end of line number info
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    if (emit->pass == MP_PASS_CODE_SIZE) {
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        // Need to make sure we have enough room in the code-info block to write
        // the size of the code-info block.  Since the size is written as a
        // compressed uint, we don't know its size until we write it!  Thus, we
        // take the biggest possible value it could be and write that here.
        // Then there will be enough room to write the value, and any leftover
        // space will be absorbed in the alignment at the end of the code-info
        // block.
        mp_uint_t max_code_info_size =
            emit->code_info_offset  // current code-info size
            + BYTES_FOR_INT         // maximum space for compressed uint
            + BYTES_PER_WORD - 1;   // maximum space for alignment padding
        emit_write_code_info_uint(emit, max_code_info_size);

        // Align code-info so that following bytecode is aligned on a machine word.
        // We don't need to write anything here, it's just dead space between the
        // code-info block and the bytecode block that follows it.
        emit_align_code_info_to_machine_word(emit);

        // calculate size of total code-info + bytecode, in bytes
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        emit->code_info_size = emit->code_info_offset;
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        emit->bytecode_size = emit->bytecode_offset;
        emit->code_base = m_new0(byte, emit->code_info_size + emit->bytecode_size);
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    } else if (emit->pass == MP_PASS_EMIT) {
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        mp_emit_glue_assign_bytecode(emit->scope->raw_code, emit->code_base,
            emit->code_info_size + emit->bytecode_size,
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            emit->scope->num_pos_args, emit->scope->num_kwonly_args,
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            emit->scope->scope_flags);
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    }
}

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STATIC bool emit_bc_last_emit_was_return_value(emit_t *emit) {
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    return emit->last_emit_was_return_value;
}

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STATIC void emit_bc_adjust_stack_size(emit_t *emit, mp_int_t delta) {
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    emit->stack_size += delta;
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_set_source_line(emit_t *emit, mp_uint_t source_line) {
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    //printf("source: line %d -> %d  offset %d -> %d\n", emit->last_source_line, source_line, emit->last_source_line_offset, emit->bytecode_offset);
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#if MICROPY_ENABLE_SOURCE_LINE
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    if (mp_optimise_value >= 3) {
        // If we compile with -O3, don't store line numbers.
        return;
    }
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    if (source_line > emit->last_source_line) {
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        mp_uint_t bytes_to_skip = emit->bytecode_offset - emit->last_source_line_offset;
        mp_uint_t lines_to_skip = source_line - emit->last_source_line;
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        emit_write_code_info_bytes_lines(emit, bytes_to_skip, lines_to_skip);
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        emit->last_source_line_offset = emit->bytecode_offset;
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        emit->last_source_line = source_line;
    }
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#endif
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_load_id(emit_t *emit, qstr qst) {
    emit_common_load_id(emit, &emit_bc_method_table, emit->scope, qst);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_store_id(emit_t *emit, qstr qst) {
    emit_common_store_id(emit, &emit_bc_method_table, emit->scope, qst);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_delete_id(emit_t *emit, qstr qst) {
    emit_common_delete_id(emit, &emit_bc_method_table, emit->scope, qst);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_pre(emit_t *emit, mp_int_t stack_size_delta) {
    assert((mp_int_t)emit->stack_size + stack_size_delta >= 0);
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    emit->stack_size += stack_size_delta;
    if (emit->stack_size > emit->scope->stack_size) {
        emit->scope->stack_size = emit->stack_size;
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    }
    emit->last_emit_was_return_value = false;
}

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STATIC void emit_bc_label_assign(emit_t *emit, mp_uint_t l) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, 0);
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    assert(l < emit->max_num_labels);
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    if (emit->pass < MP_PASS_EMIT) {
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        // assign label offset
        assert(emit->label_offsets[l] == -1);
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        emit->label_offsets[l] = emit->bytecode_offset;
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    } else {
        // ensure label offset has not changed from MP_PASS_CODE_SIZE to MP_PASS_EMIT
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        //printf("l%d: (at %d vs %d)\n", l, emit->bytecode_offset, emit->label_offsets[l]);
        assert(emit->label_offsets[l] == emit->bytecode_offset);
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    }
}

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STATIC void emit_bc_import_name(emit_t *emit, qstr qst) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, -1);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte_qstr(emit, MP_BC_IMPORT_NAME, qst);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_import_from(emit_t *emit, qstr qst) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, 1);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte_qstr(emit, MP_BC_IMPORT_FROM, qst);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_import_star(emit_t *emit) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, -1);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte(emit, MP_BC_IMPORT_STAR);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_load_const_tok(emit_t *emit, mp_token_kind_t tok) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, 1);
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    switch (tok) {
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        case MP_TOKEN_KW_FALSE: emit_write_bytecode_byte(emit, MP_BC_LOAD_CONST_FALSE); break;
        case MP_TOKEN_KW_NONE: emit_write_bytecode_byte(emit, MP_BC_LOAD_CONST_NONE); break;
        case MP_TOKEN_KW_TRUE: emit_write_bytecode_byte(emit, MP_BC_LOAD_CONST_TRUE); break;
        case MP_TOKEN_ELLIPSIS: emit_write_bytecode_byte(emit, MP_BC_LOAD_CONST_ELLIPSIS); break;
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        default: assert(0);
    }
}

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STATIC void emit_bc_load_const_small_int(emit_t *emit, mp_int_t arg) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, 1);
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    if (-16 <= arg && arg <= 47) {
        emit_write_bytecode_byte(emit, MP_BC_LOAD_CONST_SMALL_INT_MULTI + 16 + arg);
    } else {
        emit_write_bytecode_byte_int(emit, MP_BC_LOAD_CONST_SMALL_INT, arg);
    }
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_load_const_int(emit_t *emit, qstr qst) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, 1);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte_qstr(emit, MP_BC_LOAD_CONST_INT, qst);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_load_const_dec(emit_t *emit, qstr qst) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, 1);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte_qstr(emit, MP_BC_LOAD_CONST_DEC, qst);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_load_const_str(emit_t *emit, qstr qst, bool bytes) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, 1);
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    if (bytes) {
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        emit_write_bytecode_byte_qstr(emit, MP_BC_LOAD_CONST_BYTES, qst);
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    } else {
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        emit_write_bytecode_byte_qstr(emit, MP_BC_LOAD_CONST_STRING, qst);
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    }
}

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STATIC void emit_bc_load_null(emit_t *emit) {
    emit_bc_pre(emit, 1);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte(emit, MP_BC_LOAD_NULL);
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};

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STATIC void emit_bc_load_fast(emit_t *emit, qstr qst, mp_uint_t id_flags, mp_uint_t local_num) {
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    assert(local_num >= 0);
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, 1);
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    if (local_num <= 15) {
        emit_write_bytecode_byte(emit, MP_BC_LOAD_FAST_MULTI + local_num);
    } else {
        emit_write_bytecode_byte_uint(emit, MP_BC_LOAD_FAST_N, local_num);
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    }
}

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STATIC void emit_bc_load_deref(emit_t *emit, qstr qst, mp_uint_t local_num) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, 1);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte_uint(emit, MP_BC_LOAD_DEREF, local_num);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_load_name(emit_t *emit, qstr qst) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, 1);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte_qstr(emit, MP_BC_LOAD_NAME, qst);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_load_global(emit_t *emit, qstr qst) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, 1);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte_qstr(emit, MP_BC_LOAD_GLOBAL, qst);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_load_attr(emit_t *emit, qstr qst) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, 0);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte_qstr(emit, MP_BC_LOAD_ATTR, qst);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_load_method(emit_t *emit, qstr qst) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, 1);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte_qstr(emit, MP_BC_LOAD_METHOD, qst);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_load_build_class(emit_t *emit) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, 1);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte(emit, MP_BC_LOAD_BUILD_CLASS);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_load_subscr(emit_t *emit) {
    emit_bc_pre(emit, -1);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte(emit, MP_BC_LOAD_SUBSCR);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_store_fast(emit_t *emit, qstr qst, mp_uint_t local_num) {
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    assert(local_num >= 0);
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, -1);
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    if (local_num <= 15) {
        emit_write_bytecode_byte(emit, MP_BC_STORE_FAST_MULTI + local_num);
    } else {
        emit_write_bytecode_byte_uint(emit, MP_BC_STORE_FAST_N, local_num);
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    }
}

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STATIC void emit_bc_store_deref(emit_t *emit, qstr qst, mp_uint_t local_num) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, -1);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte_uint(emit, MP_BC_STORE_DEREF, local_num);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_store_name(emit_t *emit, qstr qst) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, -1);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte_qstr(emit, MP_BC_STORE_NAME, qst);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_store_global(emit_t *emit, qstr qst) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, -1);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte_qstr(emit, MP_BC_STORE_GLOBAL, qst);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_store_attr(emit_t *emit, qstr qst) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, -2);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte_qstr(emit, MP_BC_STORE_ATTR, qst);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_store_subscr(emit_t *emit) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, -3);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte(emit, MP_BC_STORE_SUBSCR);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_delete_fast(emit_t *emit, qstr qst, mp_uint_t local_num) {
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte_uint(emit, MP_BC_DELETE_FAST, local_num);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_delete_deref(emit_t *emit, qstr qst, mp_uint_t local_num) {
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte_uint(emit, MP_BC_DELETE_DEREF, local_num);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_delete_name(emit_t *emit, qstr qst) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, 0);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte_qstr(emit, MP_BC_DELETE_NAME, qst);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_delete_global(emit_t *emit, qstr qst) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, 0);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte_qstr(emit, MP_BC_DELETE_GLOBAL, qst);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_delete_attr(emit_t *emit, qstr qst) {
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    emit_bc_load_null(emit);
    emit_bc_rot_two(emit);
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    emit_bc_store_attr(emit, qst);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_delete_subscr(emit_t *emit) {
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    emit_bc_load_null(emit);
    emit_bc_rot_three(emit);
    emit_bc_store_subscr(emit);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_dup_top(emit_t *emit) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, 1);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte(emit, MP_BC_DUP_TOP);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_dup_top_two(emit_t *emit) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, 2);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte(emit, MP_BC_DUP_TOP_TWO);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_pop_top(emit_t *emit) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, -1);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte(emit, MP_BC_POP_TOP);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_rot_two(emit_t *emit) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, 0);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte(emit, MP_BC_ROT_TWO);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_rot_three(emit_t *emit) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, 0);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte(emit, MP_BC_ROT_THREE);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_jump(emit_t *emit, mp_uint_t label) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, 0);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte_signed_label(emit, MP_BC_JUMP, label);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_pop_jump_if_true(emit_t *emit, mp_uint_t label) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, -1);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte_signed_label(emit, MP_BC_POP_JUMP_IF_TRUE, label);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_pop_jump_if_false(emit_t *emit, mp_uint_t label) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, -1);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte_signed_label(emit, MP_BC_POP_JUMP_IF_FALSE, label);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_jump_if_true_or_pop(emit_t *emit, mp_uint_t label) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, -1);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte_signed_label(emit, MP_BC_JUMP_IF_TRUE_OR_POP, label);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_jump_if_false_or_pop(emit_t *emit, mp_uint_t label) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, -1);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte_signed_label(emit, MP_BC_JUMP_IF_FALSE_OR_POP, label);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_unwind_jump(emit_t *emit, mp_uint_t label, mp_uint_t except_depth) {
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    if (except_depth == 0) {
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        emit_bc_pre(emit, 0);
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        if (label & MP_EMIT_BREAK_FROM_FOR) {
            // need to pop the iterator if we are breaking out of a for loop
            emit_write_bytecode_byte(emit, MP_BC_POP_TOP);
        }
        emit_write_bytecode_byte_signed_label(emit, MP_BC_JUMP, label & ~MP_EMIT_BREAK_FROM_FOR);
    } else {
        emit_write_bytecode_byte_signed_label(emit, MP_BC_UNWIND_JUMP, label & ~MP_EMIT_BREAK_FROM_FOR);
        emit_write_bytecode_byte(emit, ((label & MP_EMIT_BREAK_FROM_FOR) ? 0x80 : 0) | except_depth);
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    }
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_setup_with(emit_t *emit, mp_uint_t label) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, 7);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte_unsigned_label(emit, MP_BC_SETUP_WITH, label);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_with_cleanup(emit_t *emit) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, -7);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte(emit, MP_BC_WITH_CLEANUP);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_setup_except(emit_t *emit, mp_uint_t label) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, 0);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte_unsigned_label(emit, MP_BC_SETUP_EXCEPT, label);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_setup_finally(emit_t *emit, mp_uint_t label) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, 0);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte_unsigned_label(emit, MP_BC_SETUP_FINALLY, label);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_end_finally(emit_t *emit) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, -1);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte(emit, MP_BC_END_FINALLY);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_get_iter(emit_t *emit) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, 0);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte(emit, MP_BC_GET_ITER);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_for_iter(emit_t *emit, mp_uint_t label) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, 1);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte_unsigned_label(emit, MP_BC_FOR_ITER, label);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_for_iter_end(emit_t *emit) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, -1);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_pop_block(emit_t *emit) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, 0);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte(emit, MP_BC_POP_BLOCK);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_pop_except(emit_t *emit) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, 0);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte(emit, MP_BC_POP_EXCEPT);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_unary_op(emit_t *emit, mp_unary_op_t op) {
    if (op == MP_UNARY_OP_NOT) {
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        emit_bc_pre(emit, 0);
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        emit_write_bytecode_byte(emit, MP_BC_UNARY_OP_MULTI + MP_UNARY_OP_BOOL);
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        emit_bc_pre(emit, 0);
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        emit_write_bytecode_byte(emit, MP_BC_NOT);
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    } else {
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        emit_bc_pre(emit, 0);
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        emit_write_bytecode_byte(emit, MP_BC_UNARY_OP_MULTI + op);
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    }
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_binary_op(emit_t *emit, mp_binary_op_t op) {
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    bool invert = false;
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    if (op == MP_BINARY_OP_NOT_IN) {
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        invert = true;
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        op = MP_BINARY_OP_IN;
    } else if (op == MP_BINARY_OP_IS_NOT) {
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        invert = true;
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        op = MP_BINARY_OP_IS;
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    }
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, -1);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte(emit, MP_BC_BINARY_OP_MULTI + op);
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    if (invert) {
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        emit_bc_pre(emit, 0);
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        emit_write_bytecode_byte(emit, MP_BC_NOT);
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    }
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_build_tuple(emit_t *emit, mp_uint_t n_args) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, 1 - n_args);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte_uint(emit, MP_BC_BUILD_TUPLE, n_args);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_build_list(emit_t *emit, mp_uint_t n_args) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, 1 - n_args);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte_uint(emit, MP_BC_BUILD_LIST, n_args);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_list_append(emit_t *emit, mp_uint_t list_stack_index) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, -1);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte_uint(emit, MP_BC_LIST_APPEND, list_stack_index);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_build_map(emit_t *emit, mp_uint_t n_args) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, 1);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte_uint(emit, MP_BC_BUILD_MAP, n_args);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_store_map(emit_t *emit) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, -2);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte(emit, MP_BC_STORE_MAP);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_map_add(emit_t *emit, mp_uint_t map_stack_index) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, -2);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte_uint(emit, MP_BC_MAP_ADD, map_stack_index);
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}

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#if MICROPY_PY_BUILTINS_SET
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STATIC void emit_bc_build_set(emit_t *emit, mp_uint_t n_args) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, 1 - n_args);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte_uint(emit, MP_BC_BUILD_SET, n_args);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_set_add(emit_t *emit, mp_uint_t set_stack_index) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, -1);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte_uint(emit, MP_BC_SET_ADD, set_stack_index);
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}
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#endif
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STATIC void emit_bc_build_slice(emit_t *emit, mp_uint_t n_args) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, 1 - n_args);
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    emit_write_bytecode_byte_uint(emit, MP_BC_BUILD_SLICE, n_args);
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}

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STATIC void emit_bc_unpack_sequence(emit_t *emit, mp_uint_t n_args) {
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    emit_bc_pre(emit, -1 + n_args