vm.c 54.2 KB
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/*
 * This file is part of the Micro Python project, http://micropython.org/
 *
 * The MIT License (MIT)
 *
 * Copyright (c) 2013, 2014 Damien P. George
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 * Copyright (c) 2014 Paul Sokolovsky
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 *
 * Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
 * of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
 * in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
 * to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
 * copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
 * furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
 *
 * The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
 * all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
 *
 * THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
 * IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
 * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
 * AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
 * LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
 * OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN
 * THE SOFTWARE.
 */

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#include <stdio.h>
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#include <string.h>
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#include <assert.h>

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#include "py/mpstate.h"
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#include "py/nlr.h"
#include "py/emitglue.h"
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#include "py/objtype.h"
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#include "py/runtime.h"
#include "py/bc0.h"
#include "py/bc.h"
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#if 0
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#define TRACE(ip) printf("sp=" INT_FMT " ", sp - code_state->sp); mp_bytecode_print2(ip, 1);
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#else
#define TRACE(ip)
#endif
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// Value stack grows up (this makes it incompatible with native C stack, but
// makes sure that arguments to functions are in natural order arg1..argN
// (Python semantics mandates left-to-right evaluation order, including for
// function arguments). Stack pointer is pre-incremented and points at the
// top element.
// Exception stack also grows up, top element is also pointed at.

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// Exception stack unwind reasons (WHY_* in CPython-speak)
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// TODO perhaps compress this to RETURN=0, JUMP>0, with number of unwinds
// left to do encoded in the JUMP number
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typedef enum {
    UNWIND_RETURN = 1,
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    UNWIND_JUMP,
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} mp_unwind_reason_t;

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#define DECODE_UINT \
    mp_uint_t unum = 0; \
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    do { \
        unum = (unum << 7) + (*ip & 0x7f); \
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    } while ((*ip++ & 0x80) != 0)
#define DECODE_ULABEL mp_uint_t ulab = (ip[0] | (ip[1] << 8)); ip += 2
#define DECODE_SLABEL mp_uint_t slab = (ip[0] | (ip[1] << 8)) - 0x8000; ip += 2
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#define DECODE_QSTR qstr qst = 0; \
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    do { \
        qst = (qst << 7) + (*ip & 0x7f); \
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    } while ((*ip++ & 0x80) != 0)
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#define DECODE_PTR \
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    ip = (byte*)(((mp_uint_t)ip + sizeof(mp_uint_t) - 1) & (~(sizeof(mp_uint_t) - 1))); /* align ip */ \
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    void *ptr = (void*)*(mp_uint_t*)ip; \
    ip += sizeof(mp_uint_t)
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#define PUSH(val) *++sp = (val)
#define POP() (*sp--)
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#define TOP() (*sp)
#define SET_TOP(val) *sp = (val)
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#define PUSH_EXC_BLOCK(with_or_finally) do { \
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    DECODE_ULABEL; /* except labels are always forward */ \
    ++exc_sp; \
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    exc_sp->handler = ip + ulab; \
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    exc_sp->val_sp = MP_TAGPTR_MAKE(sp, ((with_or_finally) << 1) | currently_in_except_block); \
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    exc_sp->prev_exc = MP_OBJ_NULL; \
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    currently_in_except_block = 0; /* in a try block now */ \
} while (0)
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#define POP_EXC_BLOCK() \
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    currently_in_except_block = MP_TAGPTR_TAG0(exc_sp->val_sp); /* restore previous state */ \
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    exc_sp--; /* pop back to previous exception handler */

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// fastn has items in reverse order (fastn[0] is local[0], fastn[-1] is local[1], etc)
// sp points to bottom of stack which grows up
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// returns:
//  MP_VM_RETURN_NORMAL, sp valid, return value in *sp
//  MP_VM_RETURN_YIELD, ip, sp valid, yielded value in *sp
//  MP_VM_RETURN_EXCEPTION, exception in fastn[0]
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mp_vm_return_kind_t mp_execute_bytecode(mp_code_state *code_state, volatile mp_obj_t inject_exc) {
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#define SELECTIVE_EXC_IP (0)
#if SELECTIVE_EXC_IP
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#define MARK_EXC_IP_SELECTIVE() { code_state->ip = ip; } /* stores ip 1 byte past last opcode */
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#define MARK_EXC_IP_GLOBAL()
#else
#define MARK_EXC_IP_SELECTIVE()
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#define MARK_EXC_IP_GLOBAL() { code_state->ip = ip; } /* stores ip pointing to last opcode */
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#endif
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#if MICROPY_OPT_COMPUTED_GOTO
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    #include "py/vmentrytable.h"
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    #define DISPATCH() do { \
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        TRACE(ip); \
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        MARK_EXC_IP_GLOBAL(); \
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        goto *entry_table[*ip++]; \
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    } while (0)
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    #define DISPATCH_WITH_PEND_EXC_CHECK() goto pending_exception_check
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    #define ENTRY(op) entry_##op
    #define ENTRY_DEFAULT entry_default
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#else
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    #define DISPATCH() break
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    #define DISPATCH_WITH_PEND_EXC_CHECK() goto pending_exception_check
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    #define ENTRY(op) case op
    #define ENTRY_DEFAULT default
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#endif

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    // nlr_raise needs to be implemented as a goto, so that the C compiler's flow analyser
    // sees that it's possible for us to jump from the dispatch loop to the exception
    // handler.  Without this, the code may have a different stack layout in the dispatch
    // loop and the exception handler, leading to very obscure bugs.
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    #define RAISE(o) do { nlr_pop(); nlr.ret_val = o; goto exception_handler; } while (0)
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#if MICROPY_STACKLESS
run_code_state: ;
#endif
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    // Pointers which are constant for particular invocation of mp_execute_bytecode()
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    mp_obj_t * /*const*/ fastn = &code_state->state[code_state->n_state - 1];
    mp_exc_stack_t * /*const*/ exc_stack = (mp_exc_stack_t*)(code_state->state + code_state->n_state);
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    // variables that are visible to the exception handler (declared volatile)
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    volatile bool currently_in_except_block = MP_TAGPTR_TAG0(code_state->exc_sp); // 0 or 1, to detect nested exceptions
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    mp_exc_stack_t *volatile exc_sp = MP_TAGPTR_PTR(code_state->exc_sp); // stack grows up, exc_sp points to top of stack
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    // outer exception handling loop
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    for (;;) {
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        nlr_buf_t nlr;
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outer_dispatch_loop:
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        if (nlr_push(&nlr) == 0) {
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            // local variables that are not visible to the exception handler
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            const byte *ip = code_state->ip;
            mp_obj_t *sp = code_state->sp;
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            mp_obj_t obj_shared;
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            // If we have exception to inject, now that we finish setting up
            // execution context, raise it. This works as if RAISE_VARARGS
            // bytecode was executed.
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            // Injecting exc into yield from generator is a special case,
            // handled by MP_BC_YIELD_FROM itself
            if (inject_exc != MP_OBJ_NULL && *ip != MP_BC_YIELD_FROM) {
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                mp_obj_t exc = inject_exc;
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                inject_exc = MP_OBJ_NULL;
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                exc = mp_make_raise_obj(exc);
                RAISE(exc);
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            }
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            // loop to execute byte code
            for (;;) {
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dispatch_loop:
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#if MICROPY_OPT_COMPUTED_GOTO
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                DISPATCH();
#else
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                TRACE(ip);
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                MARK_EXC_IP_GLOBAL();
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                switch (*ip++) {
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#endif
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                ENTRY(MP_BC_LOAD_CONST_FALSE):
                    PUSH(mp_const_false);
                    DISPATCH();
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                ENTRY(MP_BC_LOAD_CONST_NONE):
                    PUSH(mp_const_none);
                    DISPATCH();
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                ENTRY(MP_BC_LOAD_CONST_TRUE):
                    PUSH(mp_const_true);
                    DISPATCH();
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                ENTRY(MP_BC_LOAD_CONST_ELLIPSIS):
                    PUSH((mp_obj_t)&mp_const_ellipsis_obj);
                    DISPATCH();
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                ENTRY(MP_BC_LOAD_CONST_SMALL_INT): {
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                    mp_int_t num = 0;
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                    if ((ip[0] & 0x40) != 0) {
                        // Number is negative
                        num--;
                    }
                    do {
                        num = (num << 7) | (*ip & 0x7f);
                    } while ((*ip++ & 0x80) != 0);
                    PUSH(MP_OBJ_NEW_SMALL_INT(num));
                    DISPATCH();
                }
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                ENTRY(MP_BC_LOAD_CONST_BYTES): {
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                    DECODE_QSTR;
                    PUSH(mp_load_const_bytes(qst));
                    DISPATCH();
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                }
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                ENTRY(MP_BC_LOAD_CONST_STRING): {
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                    DECODE_QSTR;
                    PUSH(mp_load_const_str(qst));
                    DISPATCH();
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                }
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                ENTRY(MP_BC_LOAD_CONST_OBJ): {
                    DECODE_PTR;
                    PUSH(ptr);
                    DISPATCH();
                }

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                ENTRY(MP_BC_LOAD_NULL):
                    PUSH(MP_OBJ_NULL);
                    DISPATCH();

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                ENTRY(MP_BC_LOAD_FAST_N): {
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                    DECODE_UINT;
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                    obj_shared = fastn[-unum];
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                    load_check:
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                    if (obj_shared == MP_OBJ_NULL) {
                        local_name_error: {
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                            MARK_EXC_IP_SELECTIVE();
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                            mp_obj_t obj = mp_obj_new_exception_msg(&mp_type_NameError, "local variable referenced before assignment");
                            RAISE(obj);
                        }
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                    }
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                    PUSH(obj_shared);
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                    DISPATCH();
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                }
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                ENTRY(MP_BC_LOAD_DEREF): {
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                    DECODE_UINT;
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                    obj_shared = mp_obj_cell_get(fastn[-unum]);
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                    goto load_check;
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                }
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                #if !MICROPY_OPT_CACHE_MAP_LOOKUP_IN_BYTECODE
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                ENTRY(MP_BC_LOAD_NAME): {
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                    MARK_EXC_IP_SELECTIVE();
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                    DECODE_QSTR;
                    PUSH(mp_load_name(qst));
                    DISPATCH();
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                }
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                #else
                ENTRY(MP_BC_LOAD_NAME): {
                    MARK_EXC_IP_SELECTIVE();
                    DECODE_QSTR;
                    mp_obj_t key = MP_OBJ_NEW_QSTR(qst);
                    mp_uint_t x = *ip;
                    if (x < MP_STATE_CTX(dict_locals)->map.alloc && MP_STATE_CTX(dict_locals)->map.table[x].key == key) {
                        PUSH(MP_STATE_CTX(dict_locals)->map.table[x].value);
                    } else {
                        mp_map_elem_t *elem = mp_map_lookup(&MP_STATE_CTX(dict_locals)->map, MP_OBJ_NEW_QSTR(qst), MP_MAP_LOOKUP);
                        if (elem != NULL) {
                            *(byte*)ip = (elem - &MP_STATE_CTX(dict_locals)->map.table[0]) & 0xff;
                            PUSH(elem->value);
                        } else {
                            PUSH(mp_load_name(MP_OBJ_QSTR_VALUE(key)));
                        }
                    }
                    ip++;
                    DISPATCH();
                }
                #endif
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                #if !MICROPY_OPT_CACHE_MAP_LOOKUP_IN_BYTECODE
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                ENTRY(MP_BC_LOAD_GLOBAL): {
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                    MARK_EXC_IP_SELECTIVE();
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                    DECODE_QSTR;
                    PUSH(mp_load_global(qst));
                    DISPATCH();
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                }
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                #else
                ENTRY(MP_BC_LOAD_GLOBAL): {
                    MARK_EXC_IP_SELECTIVE();
                    DECODE_QSTR;
                    mp_obj_t key = MP_OBJ_NEW_QSTR(qst);
                    mp_uint_t x = *ip;
                    if (x < MP_STATE_CTX(dict_globals)->map.alloc && MP_STATE_CTX(dict_globals)->map.table[x].key == key) {
                        PUSH(MP_STATE_CTX(dict_globals)->map.table[x].value);
                    } else {
                        mp_map_elem_t *elem = mp_map_lookup(&MP_STATE_CTX(dict_globals)->map, MP_OBJ_NEW_QSTR(qst), MP_MAP_LOOKUP);
                        if (elem != NULL) {
                            *(byte*)ip = (elem - &MP_STATE_CTX(dict_globals)->map.table[0]) & 0xff;
                            PUSH(elem->value);
                        } else {
                            PUSH(mp_load_global(MP_OBJ_QSTR_VALUE(key)));
                        }
                    }
                    ip++;
                    DISPATCH();
                }
                #endif
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                #if !MICROPY_OPT_CACHE_MAP_LOOKUP_IN_BYTECODE
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                ENTRY(MP_BC_LOAD_ATTR): {
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                    MARK_EXC_IP_SELECTIVE();
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                    DECODE_QSTR;
                    SET_TOP(mp_load_attr(TOP(), qst));
                    DISPATCH();
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                }
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                #else
                ENTRY(MP_BC_LOAD_ATTR): {
                    MARK_EXC_IP_SELECTIVE();
                    DECODE_QSTR;
                    mp_obj_t top = TOP();
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                    if (mp_obj_get_type(top)->attr == mp_obj_instance_attr) {
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                        mp_obj_instance_t *self = top;
                        mp_uint_t x = *ip;
                        mp_obj_t key = MP_OBJ_NEW_QSTR(qst);
                        mp_map_elem_t *elem;
                        if (x < self->members.alloc && self->members.table[x].key == key) {
                            elem = &self->members.table[x];
                        } else {
                            elem = mp_map_lookup(&self->members, key, MP_MAP_LOOKUP);
                            if (elem != NULL) {
                                *(byte*)ip = elem - &self->members.table[0];
                            } else {
                                goto load_attr_cache_fail;
                            }
                        }
                        SET_TOP(elem->value);
                        ip++;
                        DISPATCH();
                    }
                load_attr_cache_fail:
                    SET_TOP(mp_load_attr(top, qst));
                    ip++;
                    DISPATCH();
                }
                #endif
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                ENTRY(MP_BC_LOAD_METHOD): {
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                    MARK_EXC_IP_SELECTIVE();
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                    DECODE_QSTR;
                    mp_load_method(*sp, qst, sp);
                    sp += 1;
                    DISPATCH();
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                }
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                ENTRY(MP_BC_LOAD_BUILD_CLASS):
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                    MARK_EXC_IP_SELECTIVE();
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                    PUSH(mp_load_build_class());
                    DISPATCH();

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                ENTRY(MP_BC_LOAD_SUBSCR): {
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                    MARK_EXC_IP_SELECTIVE();
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                    mp_obj_t index = POP();
                    SET_TOP(mp_obj_subscr(TOP(), index, MP_OBJ_SENTINEL));
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                    DISPATCH();
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                }
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                ENTRY(MP_BC_STORE_FAST_N): {
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                    DECODE_UINT;
                    fastn[-unum] = POP();
                    DISPATCH();
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                }
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                ENTRY(MP_BC_STORE_DEREF): {
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                    DECODE_UINT;
                    mp_obj_cell_set(fastn[-unum], POP());
                    DISPATCH();
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                }
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                ENTRY(MP_BC_STORE_NAME): {
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                    MARK_EXC_IP_SELECTIVE();
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                    DECODE_QSTR;
                    mp_store_name(qst, POP());
                    DISPATCH();
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                }
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                ENTRY(MP_BC_STORE_GLOBAL): {
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                    MARK_EXC_IP_SELECTIVE();
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                    DECODE_QSTR;
                    mp_store_global(qst, POP());
                    DISPATCH();
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                }
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                #if !MICROPY_OPT_CACHE_MAP_LOOKUP_IN_BYTECODE
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                ENTRY(MP_BC_STORE_ATTR): {
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                    MARK_EXC_IP_SELECTIVE();
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                    DECODE_QSTR;
                    mp_store_attr(sp[0], qst, sp[-1]);
                    sp -= 2;
                    DISPATCH();
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                }
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                #else
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                // This caching code works with MICROPY_PY_BUILTINS_PROPERTY and/or
                // MICROPY_PY_DESCRIPTORS enabled because if the attr exists in
                // self->members then it can't be a property or have descriptors.  A
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                // consequence of this is that we can't use MP_MAP_LOOKUP_ADD_IF_NOT_FOUND
                // in the fast-path below, because that store could override a property.
                ENTRY(MP_BC_STORE_ATTR): {
                    MARK_EXC_IP_SELECTIVE();
                    DECODE_QSTR;
                    mp_obj_t top = TOP();
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                    if (mp_obj_get_type(top)->attr == mp_obj_instance_attr && sp[-1] != MP_OBJ_NULL) {
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                        mp_obj_instance_t *self = top;
                        mp_uint_t x = *ip;
                        mp_obj_t key = MP_OBJ_NEW_QSTR(qst);
                        mp_map_elem_t *elem;
                        if (x < self->members.alloc && self->members.table[x].key == key) {
                            elem = &self->members.table[x];
                        } else {
                            elem = mp_map_lookup(&self->members, key, MP_MAP_LOOKUP);
                            if (elem != NULL) {
                                *(byte*)ip = elem - &self->members.table[0];
                            } else {
                                goto store_attr_cache_fail;
                            }
                        }
                        elem->value = sp[-1];
                        sp -= 2;
                        ip++;
                        DISPATCH();
                    }
                store_attr_cache_fail:
                    mp_store_attr(sp[0], qst, sp[-1]);
                    sp -= 2;
                    ip++;
                    DISPATCH();
                }
                #endif
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                ENTRY(MP_BC_STORE_SUBSCR):
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                    MARK_EXC_IP_SELECTIVE();
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                    mp_obj_subscr(sp[-1], sp[0], sp[-2]);
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                    sp -= 3;
                    DISPATCH();

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                ENTRY(MP_BC_DELETE_FAST): {
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                    MARK_EXC_IP_SELECTIVE();
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                    DECODE_UINT;
                    if (fastn[-unum] == MP_OBJ_NULL) {
                        goto local_name_error;
                    }
                    fastn[-unum] = MP_OBJ_NULL;
                    DISPATCH();
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                }
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                ENTRY(MP_BC_DELETE_DEREF): {
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                    MARK_EXC_IP_SELECTIVE();
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                    DECODE_UINT;
                    if (mp_obj_cell_get(fastn[-unum]) == MP_OBJ_NULL) {
                        goto local_name_error;
                    }
                    mp_obj_cell_set(fastn[-unum], MP_OBJ_NULL);
                    DISPATCH();
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                }
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                ENTRY(MP_BC_DELETE_NAME): {
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                    MARK_EXC_IP_SELECTIVE();
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                    DECODE_QSTR;
                    mp_delete_name(qst);
                    DISPATCH();
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                }
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                ENTRY(MP_BC_DELETE_GLOBAL): {
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                    MARK_EXC_IP_SELECTIVE();
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                    DECODE_QSTR;
                    mp_delete_global(qst);
                    DISPATCH();
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                }
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                ENTRY(MP_BC_DUP_TOP): {
                    mp_obj_t top = TOP();
                    PUSH(top);
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                    DISPATCH();
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                }
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                ENTRY(MP_BC_DUP_TOP_TWO):
                    sp += 2;
                    sp[0] = sp[-2];
                    sp[-1] = sp[-3];
                    DISPATCH();

                ENTRY(MP_BC_POP_TOP):
                    sp -= 1;
                    DISPATCH();

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                ENTRY(MP_BC_ROT_TWO): {
                    mp_obj_t top = sp[0];
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                    sp[0] = sp[-1];
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                    sp[-1] = top;
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                    DISPATCH();
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                }
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                ENTRY(MP_BC_ROT_THREE): {
                    mp_obj_t top = sp[0];
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                    sp[0] = sp[-1];
                    sp[-1] = sp[-2];
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                    sp[-2] = top;
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                    DISPATCH();
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                }
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                ENTRY(MP_BC_JUMP): {
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                    DECODE_SLABEL;
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                    ip += slab;
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                    DISPATCH_WITH_PEND_EXC_CHECK();
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                }
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                ENTRY(MP_BC_POP_JUMP_IF_TRUE): {
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                    DECODE_SLABEL;
                    if (mp_obj_is_true(POP())) {
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                        ip += slab;
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                    }
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                    DISPATCH_WITH_PEND_EXC_CHECK();
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                }
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                ENTRY(MP_BC_POP_JUMP_IF_FALSE): {
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                    DECODE_SLABEL;
                    if (!mp_obj_is_true(POP())) {
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                        ip += slab;
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                    }
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                    DISPATCH_WITH_PEND_EXC_CHECK();
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                }
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                ENTRY(MP_BC_JUMP_IF_TRUE_OR_POP): {
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                    DECODE_SLABEL;
                    if (mp_obj_is_true(TOP())) {
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                        ip += slab;
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                    } else {
                        sp--;
                    }
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                    DISPATCH_WITH_PEND_EXC_CHECK();
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                }
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                ENTRY(MP_BC_JUMP_IF_FALSE_OR_POP): {
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                    DECODE_SLABEL;
                    if (mp_obj_is_true(TOP())) {
                        sp--;
                    } else {
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                        ip += slab;
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                    }
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                    DISPATCH_WITH_PEND_EXC_CHECK();
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                }
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                ENTRY(MP_BC_SETUP_WITH): {
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                    MARK_EXC_IP_SELECTIVE();
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                    mp_obj_t obj = TOP();
                    SET_TOP(mp_load_attr(obj, MP_QSTR___exit__));
                    mp_load_method(obj, MP_QSTR___enter__, sp + 1);
                    mp_obj_t ret = mp_call_method_n_kw(0, 0, sp + 1);
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                    PUSH_EXC_BLOCK(1);
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                    PUSH(ret);
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                    DISPATCH();
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                }
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                ENTRY(MP_BC_WITH_CLEANUP): {
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                    MARK_EXC_IP_SELECTIVE();
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                    // Arriving here, there's "exception control block" on top of stack,
                    // and __exit__ bound method underneath it. Bytecode calls __exit__,
                    // and "deletes" it off stack, shifting "exception control block"
                    // to its place.
                    static const mp_obj_t no_exc[] = {mp_const_none, mp_const_none, mp_const_none};
                    if (TOP() == mp_const_none) {
                        sp--;
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                        mp_obj_t obj = TOP();
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                        SET_TOP(mp_const_none);
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                        mp_call_function_n_kw(obj, 3, 0, no_exc);
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                    } else if (MP_OBJ_IS_SMALL_INT(TOP())) {
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                        mp_int_t cause_val = MP_OBJ_SMALL_INT_VALUE(TOP());
                        if (cause_val == UNWIND_RETURN) {
                            mp_call_function_n_kw(sp[-2], 3, 0, no_exc);
                        } else {
                            assert(cause_val == UNWIND_JUMP);
                            mp_call_function_n_kw(sp[-3], 3, 0, no_exc);
                            // Pop __exit__ boundmethod at sp[-3]
                            sp[-3] = sp[-2];
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                        }
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                        sp[-2] = sp[-1]; // copy retval down
                        sp[-1] = sp[0]; // copy cause down
                        sp--; // discard top value (was cause)
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                    } else {
                        assert(mp_obj_is_exception_type(TOP()));
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                        // Need to pass (sp[0], sp[-1], sp[-2]) as arguments so must reverse the
                        // order of these on the value stack (don't want to create a temporary
                        // array because it increases stack footprint of the VM).
                        mp_obj_t obj = sp[-2];
                        sp[-2] = sp[0];
                        sp[0] = obj;
                        mp_obj_t ret_value = mp_call_function_n_kw(sp[-3], 3, 0, &sp[-2]);
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                        if (mp_obj_is_true(ret_value)) {
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                            // This is what CPython does
                            //PUSH(MP_OBJ_NEW_SMALL_INT(UNWIND_SILENCED));
                            // But what we need to do is - pop exception from value stack...
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                            sp -= 4;
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                            // ... pop "with" exception handler, and signal END_FINALLY
                            // to just execute finally handler normally (by pushing None
                            // on value stack)
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                            assert(exc_sp >= exc_stack);
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                            POP_EXC_BLOCK();
                            PUSH(mp_const_none);
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                        } else {
                            // Pop __exit__ boundmethod at sp[-3], remembering that top 3 values
                            // are reversed.
                            sp[-3] = sp[0];
                            obj = sp[-2];
                            sp[-2] = sp[-1];
                            sp[-1] = obj;
                            sp--;
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                        }
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                    }
                    DISPATCH();
                }
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                ENTRY(MP_BC_UNWIND_JUMP): {
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                    MARK_EXC_IP_SELECTIVE();
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                    DECODE_SLABEL;
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                    PUSH((void*)(ip + slab)); // push destination ip for jump
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                    PUSH((void*)(mp_uint_t)(*ip)); // push number of exception handlers to unwind (0x80 bit set if we also need to pop stack)
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unwind_jump:;
                    mp_uint_t unum = (mp_uint_t)POP(); // get number of exception handlers to unwind
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                    while ((unum & 0x7f) > 0) {
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                        unum -= 1;
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                        assert(exc_sp >= exc_stack);
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                        if (MP_TAGPTR_TAG1(exc_sp->val_sp)) {
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                            // We're going to run "finally" code as a coroutine
                            // (not calling it recursively). Set up a sentinel
                            // on a stack so it can return back to us when it is
                            // done (when END_FINALLY reached).
                            PUSH((void*)unum); // push number of exception handlers left to unwind
                            PUSH(MP_OBJ_NEW_SMALL_INT(UNWIND_JUMP)); // push sentinel
                            ip = exc_sp->handler; // get exception handler byte code address
                            exc_sp--; // pop exception handler
                            goto dispatch_loop; // run the exception handler
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                        }
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                        exc_sp--;
                    }
                    ip = (const byte*)POP(); // pop destination ip for jump
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                    if (unum != 0) {
                        sp--;
                    }
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                    DISPATCH_WITH_PEND_EXC_CHECK();
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                }
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                // matched against: POP_BLOCK or POP_EXCEPT (anything else?)
                ENTRY(MP_BC_SETUP_EXCEPT):
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                ENTRY(MP_BC_SETUP_FINALLY): {
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                    MARK_EXC_IP_SELECTIVE();
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                    #if SELECTIVE_EXC_IP
                    PUSH_EXC_BLOCK((code_state->ip[-1] == MP_BC_SETUP_FINALLY) ? 1 : 0);
                    #else
                    PUSH_EXC_BLOCK((code_state->ip[0] == MP_BC_SETUP_FINALLY) ? 1 : 0);
                    #endif
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                    DISPATCH();
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                }
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                ENTRY(MP_BC_END_FINALLY):
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                    MARK_EXC_IP_SELECTIVE();
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                    // not fully implemented
                    // if TOS is an exception, reraises the exception (3 values on TOS)
                    // if TOS is None, just pops it and continues
                    // if TOS is an integer, does something else
                    // else error
                    if (mp_obj_is_exception_type(TOP())) {
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                        RAISE(sp[-1]);
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                    }
                    if (TOP() == mp_const_none) {
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                        sp--;
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                    } else {
                        assert(MP_OBJ_IS_SMALL_INT(TOP()));
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                        // We finished "finally" coroutine and now dispatch back
                        // to our caller, based on TOS value
                        mp_unwind_reason_t reason = MP_OBJ_SMALL_INT_VALUE(POP());
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                        if (reason == UNWIND_RETURN) {
                            goto unwind_return;
                        } else {
                            assert(reason == UNWIND_JUMP);
                            goto unwind_jump;
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                        }
                    }
                    DISPATCH();

                ENTRY(MP_BC_GET_ITER):
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                    MARK_EXC_IP_SELECTIVE();
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                    SET_TOP(mp_getiter(TOP()));
                    DISPATCH();

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                ENTRY(MP_BC_FOR_ITER): {
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                    MARK_EXC_IP_SELECTIVE();
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                    DECODE_ULABEL; // the jump offset if iteration finishes; for labels are always forward
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                    code_state->sp = sp;
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                    assert(TOP());
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                    mp_obj_t value = mp_iternext_allow_raise(TOP());
                    if (value == MP_OBJ_STOP_ITERATION) {
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                        --sp; // pop the exhausted iterator
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                        ip += ulab; // jump to after for-block
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                    } else {
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                        PUSH(value); // push the next iteration value
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                    }
                    DISPATCH();
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                }
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                // matched against: SETUP_EXCEPT, SETUP_FINALLY, SETUP_WITH
                ENTRY(MP_BC_POP_BLOCK):
                    // we are exiting an exception handler, so pop the last one of the exception-stack
                    assert(exc_sp >= exc_stack);
                    POP_EXC_BLOCK();
                    DISPATCH();

                // matched against: SETUP_EXCEPT
                ENTRY(MP_BC_POP_EXCEPT):
                    // TODO need to work out how blocks work etc
                    // pops block, checks it's an exception block, and restores the stack, saving the 3 exception values to local threadstate
                    assert(exc_sp >= exc_stack);
                    assert(currently_in_except_block);
                    //sp = (mp_obj_t*)(*exc_sp--);
                    //exc_sp--; // discard ip
                    POP_EXC_BLOCK();
                    //sp -= 3; // pop 3 exception values
                    DISPATCH();

                ENTRY(MP_BC_NOT):
                    if (TOP() == mp_const_true) {
                        SET_TOP(mp_const_false);
                    } else {
                        SET_TOP(mp_const_true);
                    }
                    DISPATCH();

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                ENTRY(MP_BC_BUILD_TUPLE): {
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                    MARK_EXC_IP_SELECTIVE();
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                    DECODE_UINT;
                    sp -= unum - 1;
                    SET_TOP(mp_obj_new_tuple(unum, sp));
                    DISPATCH();
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                }
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741
                ENTRY(MP_BC_BUILD_LIST): {
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                    MARK_EXC_IP_SELECTIVE();
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                    DECODE_UINT;
                    sp -= unum - 1;
                    SET_TOP(mp_obj_new_list(unum, sp));
                    DISPATCH();
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                }
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749
                ENTRY(MP_BC_LIST_APPEND): {
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                    MARK_EXC_IP_SELECTIVE();
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                    DECODE_UINT;
                    // I think it's guaranteed by the compiler that sp[unum] is a list
                    mp_obj_list_append(sp[-unum], sp[0]);
                    sp--;
                    DISPATCH();
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                }
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758
                ENTRY(MP_BC_BUILD_MAP): {
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                    MARK_EXC_IP_SELECTIVE();
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                    DECODE_UINT;
                    PUSH(mp_obj_new_dict(unum));
                    DISPATCH();
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                }
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                ENTRY(MP_BC_STORE_MAP):
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                    MARK_EXC_IP_SELECTIVE();
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                    sp -= 2;
                    mp_obj_dict_store(sp[0], sp[2], sp[1]);
                    DISPATCH();

771
                ENTRY(MP_BC_MAP_ADD): {
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                    MARK_EXC_IP_SELECTIVE();
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                    DECODE_UINT;
                    // I think it's guaranteed by the compiler that sp[-unum - 1] is a map
                    mp_obj_dict_store(sp[-unum - 1], sp[0], sp[-1]);
                    sp -= 2;
                    DISPATCH();
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                }
779

780
#if MICROPY_PY_BUILTINS_SET
781
                ENTRY(MP_BC_BUILD_SET): {
782
                    MARK_EXC_IP_SELECTIVE();
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                    DECODE_UINT;
                    sp -= unum - 1;
                    SET_TOP(mp_obj_new_set(unum, sp));
                    DISPATCH();
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                }
788

789
                ENTRY(MP_BC_SET_ADD): {
790
                    MARK_EXC_IP_SELECTIVE();
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                    DECODE_UINT;
                    // I think it's guaranteed by the compiler that sp[-unum] is a set
                    mp_obj_set_store(sp[-unum], sp[0]);
                    sp--;
                    DISPATCH();
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                }
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#endif
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798

799
#if MICROPY_PY_BUILTINS_SLICE
800
                ENTRY(MP_BC_BUILD_SLICE): {
801
                    MARK_EXC_IP_SELECTIVE();
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                    DECODE_UINT;
                    if (unum == 2) {
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                        mp_obj_t stop = POP();
                        mp_obj_t start = TOP();
                        SET_TOP(mp_obj_new_slice(start, stop, mp_const_none));
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                    } else {
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                        mp_obj_t step = POP();
                        mp_obj_t stop = POP();
                        mp_obj_t start = TOP();
                        SET_TOP(mp_obj_new_slice(start, stop, step));
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                    }
                    DISPATCH();
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                }
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#endif
816

817
                ENTRY(MP_BC_UNPACK_SEQUENCE): {
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                    MARK_EXC_IP_SELECTIVE();
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                    DECODE_UINT;
                    mp_unpack_sequence(sp[0], unum, sp);
                    sp += unum - 1;
                    DISPATCH();
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                }
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825
                ENTRY(MP_BC_UNPACK_EX): {
826
                    MARK_EXC_IP_SELECTIVE();
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                    DECODE_UINT;
                    mp_unpack_ex(sp[0], unum, sp);
                    sp += (unum & 0xff) + ((unum >> 8) & 0xff);
                    DISPATCH();
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                }
832

833
                ENTRY(MP_BC_MAKE_FUNCTION): {
834
                    DECODE_PTR;
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                    PUSH(mp_make_function_from_raw_code(ptr, MP_OBJ_NULL, MP_OBJ_NULL));
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                    DISPATCH();
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                }
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839
                ENTRY(MP_BC_MAKE_FUNCTION_DEFARGS): {
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                    DECODE_PTR;
                    // Stack layout: def_tuple def_dict <- TOS
842
                    mp_obj_t def_dict = POP();
843
                    SET_TOP(mp_make_function_from_raw_code(ptr, TOP(), def_dict));
844
                    DISPATCH();
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                }
846

847
                ENTRY(MP_BC_MAKE_CLOSURE): {
848
                    DECODE_PTR;
849
                    mp_uint_t n_closed_over = *ip++;
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                    // Stack layout: closed_overs <- TOS
                    sp -= n_closed_over - 1;
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                    SET_TOP(mp_make_closure_from_raw_code(ptr, n_closed_over, sp));
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                    DISPATCH();
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                }
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856
                ENTRY(MP_BC_MAKE_CLOSURE_DEFARGS): {
857
                    DECODE_PTR;
858
                    mp_uint_t n_closed_over = *ip++;
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                    // Stack layout: def_tuple def_dict closed_overs <- TOS
                    sp -= 2 + n_closed_over - 1;
861
                    SET_TOP(mp_make_closure_from_raw_code(ptr, 0x100 | n_closed_over, sp));
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                    DISPATCH();
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                }
864

865
                ENTRY(MP_BC_CALL_FUNCTION): {
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                    MARK_EXC_IP_SELECTIVE();
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                    DECODE_UINT;
                    // unum & 0xff == n_positional
                    // (unum >> 8) & 0xff == n_keyword
                    sp -= (unum & 0xff) + ((unum >> 7) & 0x1fe);
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                    #if MICROPY_STACKLESS
                    if (mp_obj_get_type(*sp) == &mp_type_fun_bc) {
                        code_state->ip = ip;
                        code_state->sp = sp;
                        code_state->exc_sp = MP_TAGPTR_MAKE(exc_sp, currently_in_except_block);
                        mp_code_state *new_state = mp_obj_fun_bc_prepare_codestate(*sp, unum & 0xff, (unum >> 8) & 0xff, sp + 1);
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                        if (new_state) {
                            new_state->prev = code_state;
                            code_state = new_state;
                            nlr_pop();
                            goto run_code_state;
                        }
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                        #if MICROPY_STACKLESS_STRICT
                        else {
                        deep_recursion_error:
                            mp_exc_recursion_depth();
                        }
                        #endif