runtime.c 45.6 KB
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/*
 * This file is part of the Micro Python project, http://micropython.org/
 *
 * The MIT License (MIT)
 *
 * Copyright (c) 2013, 2014 Damien P. George
 *
 * Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
 * of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
 * in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
 * to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
 * copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
 * furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
 *
 * The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
 * all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
 *
 * THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
 * IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
 * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
 * AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
 * LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
 * OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN
 * THE SOFTWARE.
 */

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#include <stdint.h>
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#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <assert.h>

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#include "mpconfig.h"
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#include "nlr.h"
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#include "misc.h"
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#include "qstr.h"
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#include "obj.h"
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#include "objtuple.h"
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#include "objlist.h"
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#include "objmodule.h"
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#include "parsenum.h"
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#include "runtime0.h"
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#include "runtime.h"
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#include "emitglue.h"
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#include "builtin.h"
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#include "builtintables.h"
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#include "bc.h"
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#include "smallint.h"
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#include "objgenerator.h"
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#include "lexer.h"
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#include "parse.h"
#include "parsehelper.h"
#include "compile.h"
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#include "stackctrl.h"
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#include "gc.h"
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#if 0 // print debugging info
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#define DEBUG_PRINT (1)
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#define DEBUG_printf DEBUG_printf
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#define DEBUG_OP_printf(...) DEBUG_printf(__VA_ARGS__)
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#else // don't print debugging info
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#define DEBUG_printf(...) (void)0
#define DEBUG_OP_printf(...) (void)0
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#endif
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// pending exception object (MP_OBJ_NULL if not pending)
mp_obj_t mp_pending_exception;

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// locals and globals need to be pointers because they can be the same in outer module scope
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STATIC mp_obj_dict_t *dict_locals;
STATIC mp_obj_dict_t *dict_globals;
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// dictionary for the __main__ module
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STATIC mp_obj_dict_t dict_main;
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const mp_obj_module_t mp_module___main__ = {
    .base = { &mp_type_module },
    .name = MP_QSTR___main__,
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    .globals = (mp_obj_dict_t*)&dict_main,
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};

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void mp_init(void) {
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    qstr_init();
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    mp_stack_ctrl_init();
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    // no pending exceptions to start with
    mp_pending_exception = MP_OBJ_NULL;

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#if MICROPY_ENABLE_EMERGENCY_EXCEPTION_BUF
    mp_init_emergency_exception_buf();
#endif

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    // call port specific initialization if any
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#ifdef MICROPY_PORT_INIT_FUNC
    MICROPY_PORT_INIT_FUNC;
#endif

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    // optimization disabled by default
    mp_optimise_value = 0;
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    // init global module stuff
    mp_module_init();
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    // initialise the __main__ module
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    mp_obj_dict_init(&dict_main, 1);
    mp_obj_dict_store(&dict_main, MP_OBJ_NEW_QSTR(MP_QSTR___name__), MP_OBJ_NEW_QSTR(MP_QSTR___main__));
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    // locals = globals for outer module (see Objects/frameobject.c/PyFrame_New())
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    dict_locals = dict_globals = &dict_main;
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}

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void mp_deinit(void) {
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    //mp_obj_dict_free(&dict_main);
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    mp_module_deinit();
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    // call port specific deinitialization if any 
#ifdef MICROPY_PORT_INIT_FUNC
    MICROPY_PORT_DEINIT_FUNC;
#endif
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}

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mp_obj_t mp_load_const_int(qstr qstr) {
    DEBUG_OP_printf("load '%s'\n", qstr_str(qstr));
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    mp_uint_t len;
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    const byte* data = qstr_data(qstr, &len);
    return mp_parse_num_integer((const char*)data, len, 0);
}

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mp_obj_t mp_load_const_dec(qstr qstr) {
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    DEBUG_OP_printf("load '%s'\n", qstr_str(qstr));
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    mp_uint_t len;
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    const byte* data = qstr_data(qstr, &len);
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    return mp_parse_num_decimal((const char*)data, len, true, false);
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}

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mp_obj_t mp_load_const_str(qstr qstr) {
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    DEBUG_OP_printf("load '%s'\n", qstr_str(qstr));
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    return MP_OBJ_NEW_QSTR(qstr);
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}

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mp_obj_t mp_load_const_bytes(qstr qstr) {
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    DEBUG_OP_printf("load b'%s'\n", qstr_str(qstr));
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    mp_uint_t len;
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    const byte *data = qstr_data(qstr, &len);
    return mp_obj_new_bytes(data, len);
}

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mp_obj_t mp_load_name(qstr qstr) {
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    // logic: search locals, globals, builtins
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    DEBUG_OP_printf("load name %s\n", qstr_str(qstr));
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    // If we're at the outer scope (locals == globals), dispatch to load_global right away
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    if (dict_locals != dict_globals) {
        mp_map_elem_t *elem = mp_map_lookup(&dict_locals->map, MP_OBJ_NEW_QSTR(qstr), MP_MAP_LOOKUP);
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        if (elem != NULL) {
            return elem->value;
        }
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    }
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    return mp_load_global(qstr);
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}

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mp_obj_t mp_load_global(qstr qstr) {
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    // logic: search globals, builtins
    DEBUG_OP_printf("load global %s\n", qstr_str(qstr));
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    mp_map_elem_t *elem = mp_map_lookup(&dict_globals->map, MP_OBJ_NEW_QSTR(qstr), MP_MAP_LOOKUP);
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    if (elem == NULL) {
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        // TODO lookup in dynamic table of builtins first
        elem = mp_map_lookup((mp_map_t*)&mp_builtin_object_dict_obj.map, MP_OBJ_NEW_QSTR(qstr), MP_MAP_LOOKUP);
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        if (elem == NULL) {
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            nlr_raise(mp_obj_new_exception_msg_varg(&mp_type_NameError, "name '%s' is not defined", qstr_str(qstr)));
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        }
    }
    return elem->value;
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}

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mp_obj_t mp_load_build_class(void) {
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    DEBUG_OP_printf("load_build_class\n");
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    // TODO lookup __build_class__ in dynamic table of builtins first
    // ... else no user-defined __build_class__, return builtin one
    return (mp_obj_t)&mp_builtin___build_class___obj;
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}

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void mp_store_name(qstr qstr, mp_obj_t obj) {
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    DEBUG_OP_printf("store name %s <- %p\n", qstr_str(qstr), obj);
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    mp_obj_dict_store(dict_locals, MP_OBJ_NEW_QSTR(qstr), obj);
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}

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void mp_delete_name(qstr qstr) {
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    DEBUG_OP_printf("delete name %s\n", qstr_str(qstr));
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    // TODO convert KeyError to NameError if qstr not found
    mp_obj_dict_delete(dict_locals, MP_OBJ_NEW_QSTR(qstr));
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}

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void mp_store_global(qstr qstr, mp_obj_t obj) {
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    DEBUG_OP_printf("store global %s <- %p\n", qstr_str(qstr), obj);
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    mp_obj_dict_store(dict_globals, MP_OBJ_NEW_QSTR(qstr), obj);
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}

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void mp_delete_global(qstr qstr) {
    DEBUG_OP_printf("delete global %s\n", qstr_str(qstr));
    // TODO convert KeyError to NameError if qstr not found
    mp_obj_dict_delete(dict_globals, MP_OBJ_NEW_QSTR(qstr));
}

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mp_obj_t mp_unary_op(mp_uint_t op, mp_obj_t arg) {
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    DEBUG_OP_printf("unary " UINT_FMT " %p\n", op, arg);
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    if (MP_OBJ_IS_SMALL_INT(arg)) {
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        mp_int_t val = MP_OBJ_SMALL_INT_VALUE(arg);
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        switch (op) {
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            case MP_UNARY_OP_BOOL:
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                return MP_BOOL(val != 0);
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            case MP_UNARY_OP_POSITIVE:
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                return arg;
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            case MP_UNARY_OP_NEGATIVE:
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                // check for overflow
                if (val == MP_SMALL_INT_MIN) {
                    return mp_obj_new_int(-val);
                } else {
                    return MP_OBJ_NEW_SMALL_INT(-val);
                }
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            case MP_UNARY_OP_INVERT:
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                return MP_OBJ_NEW_SMALL_INT(~val);
            default:
                assert(0);
                return arg;
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        }
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    } else {
        mp_obj_type_t *type = mp_obj_get_type(arg);
        if (type->unary_op != NULL) {
            mp_obj_t result = type->unary_op(op, arg);
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            if (result != MP_OBJ_NULL) {
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                return result;
            }
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        }
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        // TODO specify in error message what the operator is
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        nlr_raise(mp_obj_new_exception_msg_varg(&mp_type_TypeError, "bad operand type for unary operator: '%s'", mp_obj_get_type_str(arg)));
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    }
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}

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mp_obj_t mp_binary_op(mp_uint_t op, mp_obj_t lhs, mp_obj_t rhs) {
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    DEBUG_OP_printf("binary " UINT_FMT " %p %p\n", op, lhs, rhs);
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    // TODO correctly distinguish inplace operators for mutable objects
    // lookup logic that CPython uses for +=:
    //   check for implemented +=
    //   then check for implemented +
    //   then check for implemented seq.inplace_concat
    //   then check for implemented seq.concat
    //   then fail
    // note that list does not implement + or +=, so that inplace_concat is reached first for +=

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    // deal with is
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    if (op == MP_BINARY_OP_IS) {
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        return MP_BOOL(lhs == rhs);
    }

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    // deal with == and != for all types
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    if (op == MP_BINARY_OP_EQUAL || op == MP_BINARY_OP_NOT_EQUAL) {
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        if (mp_obj_equal(lhs, rhs)) {
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            if (op == MP_BINARY_OP_EQUAL) {
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                return mp_const_true;
            } else {
                return mp_const_false;
            }
        } else {
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            if (op == MP_BINARY_OP_EQUAL) {
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                return mp_const_false;
            } else {
                return mp_const_true;
            }
        }
    }

    // deal with exception_match for all types
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    if (op == MP_BINARY_OP_EXCEPTION_MATCH) {
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        // rhs must be issubclass(rhs, BaseException)
        if (mp_obj_is_exception_type(rhs)) {
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            if (mp_obj_exception_match(lhs, rhs)) {
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                return mp_const_true;
            } else {
                return mp_const_false;
            }
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        } else if (MP_OBJ_IS_TYPE(rhs, &mp_type_tuple)) {
            mp_obj_tuple_t *tuple = rhs;
            for (mp_uint_t i = 0; i < tuple->len; i++) {
                rhs = tuple->items[i];
                if (!mp_obj_is_exception_type(rhs)) {
                    goto unsupported_op;
                }
                if (mp_obj_exception_match(lhs, rhs)) {
                    return mp_const_true;
                }
            }
            return mp_const_false;
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        }
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        goto unsupported_op;
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    }

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    if (MP_OBJ_IS_SMALL_INT(lhs)) {
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        mp_int_t lhs_val = MP_OBJ_SMALL_INT_VALUE(lhs);
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        if (MP_OBJ_IS_SMALL_INT(rhs)) {
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            mp_int_t rhs_val = MP_OBJ_SMALL_INT_VALUE(rhs);
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            // This is a binary operation: lhs_val op rhs_val
            // We need to be careful to handle overflow; see CERT INT32-C
            // Operations that can overflow:
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            //      +       result always fits in mp_int_t, then handled by SMALL_INT check
            //      -       result always fits in mp_int_t, then handled by SMALL_INT check
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            //      *       checked explicitly
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            //      /       if lhs=MIN and rhs=-1; result always fits in mp_int_t, then handled by SMALL_INT check
            //      %       if lhs=MIN and rhs=-1; result always fits in mp_int_t, then handled by SMALL_INT check
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            //      <<      checked explicitly
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            switch (op) {
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                case MP_BINARY_OP_OR:
                case MP_BINARY_OP_INPLACE_OR: lhs_val |= rhs_val; break;
                case MP_BINARY_OP_XOR:
                case MP_BINARY_OP_INPLACE_XOR: lhs_val ^= rhs_val; break;
                case MP_BINARY_OP_AND:
                case MP_BINARY_OP_INPLACE_AND: lhs_val &= rhs_val; break;
                case MP_BINARY_OP_LSHIFT:
                case MP_BINARY_OP_INPLACE_LSHIFT: {
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                    if (rhs_val < 0) {
                        // negative shift not allowed
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                        nlr_raise(mp_obj_new_exception_msg(&mp_type_ValueError, "negative shift count"));
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                    } else if (rhs_val >= BITS_PER_WORD || lhs_val > (MP_SMALL_INT_MAX >> rhs_val) || lhs_val < (MP_SMALL_INT_MIN >> rhs_val)) {
                        // left-shift will overflow, so use higher precision integer
                        lhs = mp_obj_new_int_from_ll(lhs_val);
                        goto generic_binary_op;
                    } else {
                        // use standard precision
                        lhs_val <<= rhs_val;
                    }
                    break;
                }
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                case MP_BINARY_OP_RSHIFT:
                case MP_BINARY_OP_INPLACE_RSHIFT:
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                    if (rhs_val < 0) {
                        // negative shift not allowed
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                        nlr_raise(mp_obj_new_exception_msg(&mp_type_ValueError, "negative shift count"));
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                    } else {
                        // standard precision is enough for right-shift
                        lhs_val >>= rhs_val;
                    }
                    break;
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                case MP_BINARY_OP_ADD:
                case MP_BINARY_OP_INPLACE_ADD: lhs_val += rhs_val; break;
                case MP_BINARY_OP_SUBTRACT:
                case MP_BINARY_OP_INPLACE_SUBTRACT: lhs_val -= rhs_val; break;
                case MP_BINARY_OP_MULTIPLY:
                case MP_BINARY_OP_INPLACE_MULTIPLY: {
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                    // If long long type exists and is larger than mp_int_t, then
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                    // we can use the following code to perform overflow-checked multiplication.
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                    // Otherwise (eg in x64 case) we must use mp_small_int_mul_overflow.
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                    #if 0
                    // compute result using long long precision
                    long long res = (long long)lhs_val * (long long)rhs_val;
                    if (res > MP_SMALL_INT_MAX || res < MP_SMALL_INT_MIN) {
                        // result overflowed SMALL_INT, so return higher precision integer
                        return mp_obj_new_int_from_ll(res);
                    } else {
                        // use standard precision
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                        lhs_val = (mp_int_t)res;
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                    }
                    #endif

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                    if (mp_small_int_mul_overflow(lhs_val, rhs_val)) {
                        // use higher precision
                        lhs = mp_obj_new_int_from_ll(lhs_val);
                        goto generic_binary_op;
                    } else {
                        // use standard precision
                        return MP_OBJ_NEW_SMALL_INT(lhs_val * rhs_val);
                    }
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                    break;
                }
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                case MP_BINARY_OP_FLOOR_DIVIDE:
                case MP_BINARY_OP_INPLACE_FLOOR_DIVIDE:
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                    if (rhs_val == 0) {
                        goto zero_division;
                    }
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                    lhs_val = mp_small_int_floor_divide(lhs_val, rhs_val);
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                    break;
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                #if MICROPY_PY_BUILTINS_FLOAT
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                case MP_BINARY_OP_TRUE_DIVIDE:
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                case MP_BINARY_OP_INPLACE_TRUE_DIVIDE:
                    if (rhs_val == 0) {
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                        goto zero_division;
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                    }
                    return mp_obj_new_float((mp_float_t)lhs_val / (mp_float_t)rhs_val);
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                #endif
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                case MP_BINARY_OP_MODULO:
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                case MP_BINARY_OP_INPLACE_MODULO: {
                    lhs_val = mp_small_int_modulo(lhs_val, rhs_val);
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                    break;
                }
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                case MP_BINARY_OP_POWER:
                case MP_BINARY_OP_INPLACE_POWER:
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                    if (rhs_val < 0) {
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                        #if MICROPY_PY_BUILTINS_FLOAT
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                        lhs = mp_obj_new_float(lhs_val);
                        goto generic_binary_op;
                        #else
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                        nlr_raise(mp_obj_new_exception_msg(&mp_type_ValueError, "negative power with no float support"));
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                        #endif
                    } else {
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                        mp_int_t ans = 1;
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                        while (rhs_val > 0) {
                            if (rhs_val & 1) {
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                                if (mp_small_int_mul_overflow(ans, lhs_val)) {
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                                    goto power_overflow;
                                }
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                                ans *= lhs_val;
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                            }
                            if (rhs_val == 1) {
                                break;
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                            }
                            rhs_val /= 2;
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                            if (mp_small_int_mul_overflow(lhs_val, lhs_val)) {
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                                goto power_overflow;
                            }
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                            lhs_val *= lhs_val;
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                        }
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                        lhs_val = ans;
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                    }
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                    break;
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                power_overflow:
                    // use higher precision
                    lhs = mp_obj_new_int_from_ll(MP_OBJ_SMALL_INT_VALUE(lhs));
                    goto generic_binary_op;

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                case MP_BINARY_OP_LESS: return MP_BOOL(lhs_val < rhs_val); break;
                case MP_BINARY_OP_MORE: return MP_BOOL(lhs_val > rhs_val); break;
                case MP_BINARY_OP_LESS_EQUAL: return MP_BOOL(lhs_val <= rhs_val); break;
                case MP_BINARY_OP_MORE_EQUAL: return MP_BOOL(lhs_val >= rhs_val); break;
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                default:
                    goto unsupported_op;
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            }
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            // TODO: We just should make mp_obj_new_int() inline and use that
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            if (MP_SMALL_INT_FITS(lhs_val)) {
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                return MP_OBJ_NEW_SMALL_INT(lhs_val);
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            } else {
                return mp_obj_new_int(lhs_val);
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            }
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#if MICROPY_PY_BUILTINS_FLOAT
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        } else if (MP_OBJ_IS_TYPE(rhs, &mp_type_float)) {
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            mp_obj_t res = mp_obj_float_binary_op(op, lhs_val, rhs);
            if (res == MP_OBJ_NULL) {
                goto unsupported_op;
            } else {
                return res;
            }
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#if MICROPY_PY_BUILTINS_COMPLEX
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        } else if (MP_OBJ_IS_TYPE(rhs, &mp_type_complex)) {
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            mp_obj_t res = mp_obj_complex_binary_op(op, lhs_val, 0, rhs);
            if (res == MP_OBJ_NULL) {
                goto unsupported_op;
            } else {
                return res;
            }
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#endif
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#endif
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        }
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    }
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    /* deal with `in`
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     *
     * NOTE `a in b` is `b.__contains__(a)`, hence why the generic dispatch
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     * needs to go below with swapped arguments
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     */
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    if (op == MP_BINARY_OP_IN) {
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        mp_obj_type_t *type = mp_obj_get_type(rhs);
        if (type->binary_op != NULL) {
            mp_obj_t res = type->binary_op(op, rhs, lhs);
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            if (res != MP_OBJ_NULL) {
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                return res;
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            }
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        }
        if (type->getiter != NULL) {
            /* second attempt, walk the iterator */
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            mp_obj_t iter = mp_getiter(rhs);
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            mp_obj_t next;
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            while ((next = mp_iternext(iter)) != MP_OBJ_STOP_ITERATION) {
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                if (mp_obj_equal(next, lhs)) {
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                    return mp_const_true;
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                }
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            }
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            return mp_const_false;
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        }

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        nlr_raise(mp_obj_new_exception_msg_varg(
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                     &mp_type_TypeError, "'%s' object is not iterable",
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                     mp_obj_get_type_str(rhs)));
        return mp_const_none;
    }

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    // generic binary_op supplied by type
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    mp_obj_type_t *type;
generic_binary_op:
    type = mp_obj_get_type(lhs);
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    if (type->binary_op != NULL) {
        mp_obj_t result = type->binary_op(op, lhs, rhs);
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        if (result != MP_OBJ_NULL) {
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            return result;
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        }
    }
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    // TODO implement dispatch for reverse binary ops

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    // TODO specify in error message what the operator is
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unsupported_op:
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    nlr_raise(mp_obj_new_exception_msg_varg(&mp_type_TypeError,
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        "unsupported operand types for binary operator: '%s', '%s'",
        mp_obj_get_type_str(lhs), mp_obj_get_type_str(rhs)));
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    return mp_const_none;
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zero_division:
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    nlr_raise(mp_obj_new_exception_msg(&mp_type_ZeroDivisionError, "division by zero"));
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}

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mp_obj_t mp_call_function_0(mp_obj_t fun) {
    return mp_call_function_n_kw(fun, 0, 0, NULL);
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}

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mp_obj_t mp_call_function_1(mp_obj_t fun, mp_obj_t arg) {
    return mp_call_function_n_kw(fun, 1, 0, &arg);
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}

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mp_obj_t mp_call_function_2(mp_obj_t fun, mp_obj_t arg1, mp_obj_t arg2) {
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    mp_obj_t args[2];
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    args[0] = arg1;
    args[1] = arg2;
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    return mp_call_function_n_kw(fun, 2, 0, args);
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}

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// args contains, eg: arg0  arg1  key0  value0  key1  value1
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mp_obj_t mp_call_function_n_kw(mp_obj_t fun_in, mp_uint_t n_args, mp_uint_t n_kw, const mp_obj_t *args) {
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    // TODO improve this: fun object can specify its type and we parse here the arguments,
    // passing to the function arrays of fixed and keyword arguments
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    DEBUG_OP_printf("calling function %p(n_args=" UINT_FMT ", n_kw=" UINT_FMT ", args=%p)\n", fun_in, n_args, n_kw, args);
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    // get the type
    mp_obj_type_t *type = mp_obj_get_type(fun_in);

    // do the call
    if (type->call != NULL) {
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        return type->call(fun_in, n_args, n_kw, args);
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    }
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    nlr_raise(mp_obj_new_exception_msg_varg(&mp_type_TypeError, "'%s' object is not callable", mp_obj_get_type_str(fun_in)));
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}

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// args contains: fun  self/NULL  arg(0)  ...  arg(n_args-2)  arg(n_args-1)  kw_key(0)  kw_val(0)  ... kw_key(n_kw-1)  kw_val(n_kw-1)
// if n_args==0 and n_kw==0 then there are only fun and self/NULL
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mp_obj_t mp_call_method_n_kw(mp_uint_t n_args, mp_uint_t n_kw, const mp_obj_t *args) {
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    DEBUG_OP_printf("call method (fun=%p, self=%p, n_args=" UINT_FMT ", n_kw=" UINT_FMT ", args=%p)\n", args[0], args[1], n_args, n_kw, args);
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    int adjust = (args[1] == NULL) ? 0 : 1;
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    return mp_call_function_n_kw(args[0], n_args + adjust, n_kw, args + 2 - adjust);
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}

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mp_obj_t mp_call_method_n_kw_var(bool have_self, mp_uint_t n_args_n_kw, const mp_obj_t *args) {
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    mp_obj_t fun = *args++;
    mp_obj_t self = MP_OBJ_NULL;
    if (have_self) {
        self = *args++; // may be MP_OBJ_NULL
    }
    uint n_args = n_args_n_kw & 0xff;
    uint n_kw = (n_args_n_kw >> 8) & 0xff;
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    mp_obj_t pos_seq = args[n_args + 2 * n_kw]; // map be MP_OBJ_NULL
    mp_obj_t kw_dict = args[n_args + 2 * n_kw + 1]; // map be MP_OBJ_NULL
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    DEBUG_OP_printf("call method var (fun=%p, self=%p, n_args=%u, n_kw=%u, args=%p, seq=%p, dict=%p)\n", fun, self, n_args, n_kw, args, pos_seq, kw_dict);

    // We need to create the following array of objects:
    //     args[0 .. n_args]  unpacked(pos_seq)  args[n_args .. n_args + 2 * n_kw]  unpacked(kw_dict)
    // TODO: optimize one day to avoid constructing new arg array? Will be hard.

    // The new args array
    mp_obj_t *args2;
    uint args2_alloc;
    uint args2_len = 0;

    // Try to get a hint for the size of the kw_dict
    uint kw_dict_len = 0;
    if (kw_dict != MP_OBJ_NULL && MP_OBJ_IS_TYPE(kw_dict, &mp_type_dict)) {
        kw_dict_len = mp_obj_dict_len(kw_dict);
    }

    // Extract the pos_seq sequence to the new args array.
    // Note that it can be arbitrary iterator.
    if (pos_seq == MP_OBJ_NULL) {
        // no sequence

        // allocate memory for the new array of args
        args2_alloc = 1 + n_args + 2 * (n_kw + kw_dict_len);
        args2 = m_new(mp_obj_t, args2_alloc);

        // copy the self
        if (self != MP_OBJ_NULL) {
            args2[args2_len++] = self;
        }

        // copy the fixed pos args
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        mp_seq_copy(args2 + args2_len, args, n_args, mp_obj_t);
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        args2_len += n_args;

    } else if (MP_OBJ_IS_TYPE(pos_seq, &mp_type_tuple) || MP_OBJ_IS_TYPE(pos_seq, &mp_type_list)) {
        // optimise the case of a tuple and list

        // get the items
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        mp_uint_t len;
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        mp_obj_t *items;
        mp_obj_get_array(pos_seq, &len, &items);

        // allocate memory for the new array of args
        args2_alloc = 1 + n_args + len + 2 * (n_kw + kw_dict_len);
        args2 = m_new(mp_obj_t, args2_alloc);

        // copy the self
        if (self != MP_OBJ_NULL) {
            args2[args2_len++] = self;
        }

        // copy the fixed and variable position args
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        mp_seq_cat(args2 + args2_len, args, n_args, items, len, mp_obj_t);
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        args2_len += n_args + len;

    } else {
        // generic iterator

        // allocate memory for the new array of args
        args2_alloc = 1 + n_args + 2 * (n_kw + kw_dict_len) + 3;
        args2 = m_new(mp_obj_t, args2_alloc);

        // copy the self
        if (self != MP_OBJ_NULL) {
            args2[args2_len++] = self;
        }

        // copy the fixed position args
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        mp_seq_copy(args2 + args2_len, args, n_args, mp_obj_t);
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        // extract the variable position args from the iterator
        mp_obj_t iterable = mp_getiter(pos_seq);
        mp_obj_t item;
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        while ((item = mp_iternext(iterable)) != MP_OBJ_STOP_ITERATION) {
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            if (args2_len >= args2_alloc) {
                args2 = m_renew(mp_obj_t, args2, args2_alloc, args2_alloc * 2);
                args2_alloc *= 2;
            }
            args2[args2_len++] = item;
        }
    }

    // The size of the args2 array now is the number of positional args.
    uint pos_args_len = args2_len;

    // Copy the fixed kw args.
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    mp_seq_copy(args2 + args2_len, args + n_args, 2 * n_kw, mp_obj_t);
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    args2_len += 2 * n_kw;

    // Extract (key,value) pairs from kw_dict dictionary and append to args2.
    // Note that it can be arbitrary iterator.
    if (kw_dict == MP_OBJ_NULL) {
        // pass
    } else if (MP_OBJ_IS_TYPE(kw_dict, &mp_type_dict)) {
        // dictionary
        mp_map_t *map = mp_obj_dict_get_map(kw_dict);
        assert(args2_len + 2 * map->used <= args2_alloc); // should have enough, since kw_dict_len is in this case hinted correctly above
        for (uint i = 0; i < map->alloc; i++) {
            if (map->table[i].key != MP_OBJ_NULL) {
                args2[args2_len++] = map->table[i].key;
                args2[args2_len++] = map->table[i].value;
            }
        }
    } else {
        // generic mapping
        // TODO is calling 'items' on the mapping the correct thing to do here?
        mp_obj_t dest[2];
        mp_load_method(kw_dict, MP_QSTR_items, dest);
        mp_obj_t iterable = mp_getiter(mp_call_method_n_kw(0, 0, dest));
        mp_obj_t item;
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        while ((item = mp_iternext(iterable)) != MP_OBJ_STOP_ITERATION) {
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            if (args2_len + 1 >= args2_alloc) {
                uint new_alloc = args2_alloc * 2;
                if (new_alloc < 4) {
                    new_alloc = 4;
                }
                args2 = m_renew(mp_obj_t, args2, args2_alloc, new_alloc);
                args2_alloc = new_alloc;
            }
            mp_obj_t *items;
            mp_obj_get_array_fixed_n(item, 2, &items);
            args2[args2_len++] = items[0];
            args2[args2_len++] = items[1];
        }
    }

    mp_obj_t res = mp_call_function_n_kw(fun, pos_args_len, (args2_len - pos_args_len) / 2, args2);
    m_del(mp_obj_t, args2, args2_alloc);

    return res;
}

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// unpacked items are stored in reverse order into the array pointed to by items
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void mp_unpack_sequence(mp_obj_t seq_in, mp_uint_t num, mp_obj_t *items) {
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    mp_uint_t seq_len;
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    if (MP_OBJ_IS_TYPE(seq_in, &mp_type_tuple) || MP_OBJ_IS_TYPE(seq_in, &mp_type_list)) {
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        mp_obj_t *seq_items;
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        if (MP_OBJ_IS_TYPE(seq_in, &mp_type_tuple)) {
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            mp_obj_tuple_get(seq_in, &seq_len, &seq_items);
        } else {
            mp_obj_list_get(seq_in, &seq_len, &seq_items);
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        }
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        if (seq_len < num) {
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            goto too_short;
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        } else if (seq_len > num) {
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            goto too_long;
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        }
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        for (mp_uint_t i = 0; i < num; i++) {
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            items[i] = seq_items[num - 1 - i];
        }
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    } else {
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        mp_obj_t iterable = mp_getiter(seq_in);
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        for (seq_len = 0; seq_len < num; seq_len++) {
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            mp_obj_t el = mp_iternext(iterable);
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            if (el == MP_OBJ_STOP_ITERATION) {
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                goto too_short;
            }
            items[num - 1 - seq_len] = el;
        }
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        if (mp_iternext(iterable) != MP_OBJ_STOP_ITERATION) {
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            goto too_long;
        }
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    }
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    return;

too_short:
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    nlr_raise(mp_obj_new_exception_msg_varg(&mp_type_ValueError, "need more than %d values to unpack", seq_len));
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too_long:
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    nlr_raise(mp_obj_new_exception_msg_varg(&mp_type_ValueError, "too many values to unpack (expected %d)", num));
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}

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// unpacked items are stored in reverse order into the array pointed to by items
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void mp_unpack_ex(mp_obj_t seq_in, mp_uint_t num_in, mp_obj_t *items) {
    mp_uint_t num_left = num_in & 0xff;
    mp_uint_t num_right = (num_in >> 8) & 0xff;
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    DEBUG_OP_printf("unpack ex " UINT_FMT " " UINT_FMT "\n", num_left, num_right);
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    mp_uint_t seq_len;
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    if (MP_OBJ_IS_TYPE(seq_in, &mp_type_tuple) || MP_OBJ_IS_TYPE(seq_in, &mp_type_list)) {
        mp_obj_t *seq_items;
        if (MP_OBJ_IS_TYPE(seq_in, &mp_type_tuple)) {
            mp_obj_tuple_get(seq_in, &seq_len, &seq_items);
        } else {
            if (num_left == 0 && num_right == 0) {
                // *a, = b # sets a to b if b is a list
                items[0] = seq_in;
                return;
            }
            mp_obj_list_get(seq_in, &seq_len, &seq_items);
        }
        if (seq_len < num_left + num_right) {
            goto too_short;
        }
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        for (mp_uint_t i = 0; i < num_right; i++) {
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            items[i] = seq_items[seq_len - 1 - i];
        }
        items[num_right] = mp_obj_new_list(seq_len - num_left - num_right, seq_items + num_left);
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        for (mp_uint_t i = 0; i < num_left; i++) {
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            items[num_right + 1 + i] = seq_items[num_left - 1 - i];
        }
    } else {
        // Generic iterable; this gets a bit messy: we unpack known left length to the
        // items destination array, then the rest to a dynamically created list.  Once the
        // iterable is exhausted, we take from this list for the right part of the items.
        // TODO Improve to waste less memory in the dynamically created list.
        mp_obj_t iterable = mp_getiter(seq_in);
        mp_obj_t item;
        for (seq_len = 0; seq_len < num_left; seq_len++) {
            item = mp_iternext(iterable);
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            if (item == MP_OBJ_STOP_ITERATION) {
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                goto too_short;
            }
            items[num_left + num_right + 1 - 1 - seq_len] = item;
        }
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        mp_obj_list_t *rest = mp_obj_new_list(0, NULL);
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        while ((item = mp_iternext(iterable)) != MP_OBJ_STOP_ITERATION) {
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            mp_obj_list_append(rest, item);
        }
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        if (rest->len < num_right) {
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            goto too_short;
        }
        items[num_right] = rest;
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        for (mp_uint_t i = 0; i < num_right; i++) {
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            items[num_right - 1 - i] = rest->items[rest->len - num_right + i];
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        }
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        mp_obj_list_set_len(rest, rest->len - num_right);
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    }
    return;

too_short:
    nlr_raise(mp_obj_new_exception_msg_varg(&mp_type_ValueError, "need more than %d values to unpack", seq_len));
}

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mp_obj_t mp_load_attr(mp_obj_t base, qstr attr) {
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    DEBUG_OP_printf("load attr %p.%s\n", base, qstr_str(attr));
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    // use load_method
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    mp_obj_t dest[2];
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    mp_load_method(base, attr, dest);
    if (dest[1] == MP_OBJ_NULL) {
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        // load_method returned just a normal attribute
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        return dest[0];
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    } else {
        // load_method returned a method, so build a bound method object
        return mp_obj_new_bound_meth(dest[0], dest[1]);
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    }
}

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// no attribute found, returns:     dest[0] == MP_OBJ_NULL, dest[1] == MP_OBJ_NULL
// normal attribute found, returns: dest[0] == <attribute>, dest[1] == MP_OBJ_NULL
// method attribute found, returns: dest[0] == <method>,    dest[1] == <self>
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void mp_load_method_maybe(mp_obj_t base, qstr attr, mp_obj_t *dest) {
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    // clear output to indicate no attribute/method found yet
    dest[0] = MP_OBJ_NULL;
    dest[1] = MP_OBJ_NULL;

    // get the type
    mp_obj_type_t *type = mp_obj_get_type(base);

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    // look for built-in names
    if (0) {
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#if MICROPY_CPYTHON_COMPAT
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    } else if (attr == MP_QSTR___class__) {
        // a.__class__ is equivalent to type(a)
        dest[0] = type;
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#endif
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    } else if (attr == MP_QSTR___next__ && type->iternext != NULL) {
        dest[0] = (mp_obj_t)&mp_builtin_next_obj;
        dest[1] = base;

    } else if (type->load_attr != NULL) {
        // this type can do its own load, so call it
        type->load_attr(base, attr, dest);

    } else if (type->locals_dict != NULL) {
        // generic method lookup
        // this is a lookup in the object (ie not class or type)
        assert(MP_OBJ_IS_TYPE(type->locals_dict, &mp_type_dict)); // Micro Python restriction, for now
        mp_map_t *locals_map = mp_obj_dict_get_map(type->locals_dict);
        mp_map_elem_t *elem = mp_map_lookup(locals_map, MP_OBJ_NEW_QSTR(attr), MP_MAP_LOOKUP);
        if (elem != NULL) {
            // check if the methods are functions, static or class methods
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            // see http://docs.python.org/3/howto/descriptor.html
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            if (MP_OBJ_IS_TYPE(elem->value, &mp_type_staticmethod)) {
                // return just the function
                dest[0] = ((mp_obj_static_class_method_t*)elem->value)->fun;
            } else if (MP_OBJ_IS_TYPE(elem->value, &mp_type_classmethod)) {
                // return a bound method, with self being the type of this object
                dest[0] = ((mp_obj_static_class_method_t*)elem->value)->fun;
                dest[1] = mp_obj_get_type(base);
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            } else if (MP_OBJ_IS_TYPE(elem->value, &mp_type_type)) {
                // Don't try to bind types
                dest[0] = elem->value;
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            } else if (mp_obj_is_callable(elem->value)) {
                // return a bound method, with self being this object
                dest[0] = elem->value;
                dest[1] = base;
            } else {
                // class member is a value, so just return that value
                dest[0] = elem->value;
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            }
        }
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    }
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}

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void mp_load_method(mp_obj_t base, qstr attr, mp_obj_t *dest) {
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    DEBUG_OP_printf("load method %p.%s\n", base, qstr_str(attr));

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    mp_load_method_maybe(base, attr, dest);
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    if (dest[0] == MP_OBJ_NULL) {
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        // no attribute/method called attr
        // following CPython, we give a more detailed error message for type objects
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        if (MP_OBJ_IS_TYPE(base, &mp_type_type)) {
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            nlr_raise(mp_obj_new_exception_msg_varg(&mp_type_AttributeError,
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                "type object '%s' has no attribute '%s'", qstr_str(((mp_obj_type_t*)base)->name), qstr_str(attr)));
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        } else {
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            nlr_raise(mp_obj_new_exception_msg_varg(&mp_type_AttributeError, "'%s' object has no attribute '%s'", mp_obj_get_type_str(base), qstr_str(attr)));
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        }
    }
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}

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void mp_store_attr(mp_obj_t base, qstr attr, mp_obj_t value) {
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    DEBUG_OP_printf("store attr %p.%s <- %p\n", base, qstr_str(attr), value);
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    mp_obj_type_t *type = mp_obj_get_type(base);
    if (type->store_attr != NULL) {
        if (type->store_attr(base, attr, value)) {
            return;
        }
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    }
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    nlr_raise(mp_obj_new_exception_msg_varg(&mp_type_AttributeError, "'%s' object has no attribute '%s'", mp_obj_get_type_str(base), qstr_str(attr)));
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}

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mp_obj_t mp_getiter(mp_obj_t o_in) {
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    assert(o_in);
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    mp_obj_type_t *type = mp_obj_get_type(o_in);
    if (type->getiter != NULL) {
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        mp_obj_t iter = type->getiter(o_in);
        if (iter == MP_OBJ_NULL) {
            goto not_iterable;
        }
        return iter;
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    } else {
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        // check for __iter__ method
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        mp_obj_t dest[2];
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        mp_load_method_maybe(o_in, MP_QSTR___iter__, dest);
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        if (dest[0] != MP_OBJ_NULL) {
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            // __iter__ exists, call it and return its result
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            return mp_call_method_n_kw(0, 0, dest);
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        } else {
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            mp_load_method_maybe(o_in, MP_QSTR___getitem__, dest);
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            if (dest[0] != MP_OBJ_NULL) {
                // __getitem__ exists, create an iterator
                return mp_obj_new_getitem_iter(dest);
            }