runtime.c 36.7 KB
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// in principle, rt_xxx functions are called only by vm/native/viper and make assumptions about args
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// mp_xxx functions are safer and can be called by anyone
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// note that rt_assign_xxx are called only from emit*, and maybe we can rename them to reflect this
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#include <stdint.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <assert.h>

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#include "nlr.h"
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#include "misc.h"
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#include "mpconfig.h"
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#include "qstr.h"
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#include "obj.h"
#include "runtime0.h"
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#include "runtime.h"
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#include "map.h"
#include "builtin.h"
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#include "objarray.h"
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#include "bc.h"
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#if 0 // print debugging info
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#define DEBUG_PRINT (1)
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#define WRITE_CODE (1)
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#define DEBUG_printf(args...) printf(args)
#define DEBUG_OP_printf(args...) printf(args)
#else // don't print debugging info
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#define DEBUG_printf(args...) (void)0
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#define DEBUG_OP_printf(args...) (void)0
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#endif
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// locals and globals need to be pointers because they can be the same in outer module scope
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static mp_map_t *map_locals;
static mp_map_t *map_globals;
static mp_map_t map_builtins;
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static mp_map_t map_loaded_modules; // TODO: expose as sys.modules
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typedef enum {
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    MP_CODE_NONE,
    MP_CODE_BYTE,
    MP_CODE_NATIVE,
    MP_CODE_INLINE_ASM,
} mp_code_kind_t;

typedef struct _mp_code_t {
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    struct {
        mp_code_kind_t kind : 8;
        bool is_generator : 1;
    };
    struct {
        uint n_args : 16;
        uint n_state : 16;
    };
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    union {
        struct {
            byte *code;
            uint len;
        } u_byte;
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        struct {
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            mp_fun_t fun;
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        } u_native;
        struct {
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            void *fun;
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        } u_inline_asm;
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    };
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} mp_code_t;
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static uint next_unique_code_id;
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static machine_uint_t unique_codes_alloc = 0;
static mp_code_t *unique_codes = NULL;
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#ifdef WRITE_CODE
FILE *fp_write_code = NULL;
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#endif
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// a good optimising compiler will inline this if necessary
static void mp_map_add_qstr(mp_map_t *map, qstr qstr, mp_obj_t value) {
    mp_map_lookup(map, MP_OBJ_NEW_QSTR(qstr), MP_MAP_LOOKUP_ADD_IF_NOT_FOUND)->value = value;
}

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void rt_init(void) {
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    // locals = globals for outer module (see Objects/frameobject.c/PyFrame_New())
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    map_locals = map_globals = mp_map_new(1);
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    mp_map_add_qstr(map_globals, MP_QSTR___name__, MP_OBJ_NEW_QSTR(MP_QSTR___main__));
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    // init built-in hash table
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    mp_map_init(&map_builtins, 3);
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    // init loaded modules table
    mp_map_init(&map_loaded_modules, 3);

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    // built-in exceptions (TODO, make these proper classes, and const if possible)
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    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_AttributeError, mp_obj_new_exception(MP_QSTR_AttributeError));
    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_IndexError, mp_obj_new_exception(MP_QSTR_IndexError));
    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_KeyError, mp_obj_new_exception(MP_QSTR_KeyError));
    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_NameError, mp_obj_new_exception(MP_QSTR_NameError));
    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_TypeError, mp_obj_new_exception(MP_QSTR_TypeError));
    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_SyntaxError, mp_obj_new_exception(MP_QSTR_SyntaxError));
    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_ValueError, mp_obj_new_exception(MP_QSTR_ValueError));
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    // Somehow CPython managed to have OverflowError not inherit from ValueError ;-/
    // TODO: For MICROPY_CPYTHON_COMPAT==0 use ValueError to avoid exc proliferation
    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_OverflowError, mp_obj_new_exception(MP_QSTR_OverflowError));
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    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_OSError, mp_obj_new_exception(MP_QSTR_OSError));
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    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_AssertionError, mp_obj_new_exception(MP_QSTR_AssertionError));
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    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_StopIteration, mp_obj_new_exception(MP_QSTR_StopIteration));
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    // built-in objects
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    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_Ellipsis, mp_const_ellipsis);
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    // built-in core functions
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    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR___build_class__, (mp_obj_t)&mp_builtin___build_class___obj);
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    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR___repl_print__, (mp_obj_t)&mp_builtin___repl_print___obj);
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    // built-in types
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    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_bool, (mp_obj_t)&bool_type);
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#if MICROPY_ENABLE_FLOAT
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    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_complex, (mp_obj_t)&complex_type);
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#endif
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    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_dict, (mp_obj_t)&dict_type);
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    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_enumerate, (mp_obj_t)&enumerate_type);
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    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_filter, (mp_obj_t)&filter_type);
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#if MICROPY_ENABLE_FLOAT
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    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_float, (mp_obj_t)&float_type);
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#endif
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    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_int, (mp_obj_t)&int_type);
    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_list, (mp_obj_t)&list_type);
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    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_map, (mp_obj_t)&map_type);
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    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_set, (mp_obj_t)&set_type);
    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_tuple, (mp_obj_t)&tuple_type);
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    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_type, (mp_obj_t)&mp_const_type);
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    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_zip, (mp_obj_t)&zip_type);
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    mp_obj_t m_array = mp_obj_new_module(MP_QSTR_array);
    rt_store_attr(m_array, MP_QSTR_array, (mp_obj_t)&array_type);

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    // built-in user functions
    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_abs, (mp_obj_t)&mp_builtin_abs_obj);
    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_all, (mp_obj_t)&mp_builtin_all_obj);
    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_any, (mp_obj_t)&mp_builtin_any_obj);
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    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_bytes, (mp_obj_t)&mp_builtin_bytes_obj);
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    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_callable, (mp_obj_t)&mp_builtin_callable_obj);
    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_chr, (mp_obj_t)&mp_builtin_chr_obj);
    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_divmod, (mp_obj_t)&mp_builtin_divmod_obj);
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    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_eval, (mp_obj_t)&mp_builtin_eval_obj);
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    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_hash, (mp_obj_t)&mp_builtin_hash_obj);
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    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_isinstance, (mp_obj_t)&mp_builtin_isinstance_obj);
    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_issubclass, (mp_obj_t)&mp_builtin_issubclass_obj);
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    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_iter, (mp_obj_t)&mp_builtin_iter_obj);
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    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_len, (mp_obj_t)&mp_builtin_len_obj);
    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_max, (mp_obj_t)&mp_builtin_max_obj);
    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_min, (mp_obj_t)&mp_builtin_min_obj);
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    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_next, (mp_obj_t)&mp_builtin_next_obj);
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    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_ord, (mp_obj_t)&mp_builtin_ord_obj);
    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_pow, (mp_obj_t)&mp_builtin_pow_obj);
    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_print, (mp_obj_t)&mp_builtin_print_obj);
    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_range, (mp_obj_t)&mp_builtin_range_obj);
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    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_repr, (mp_obj_t)&mp_builtin_repr_obj);
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    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_sorted, (mp_obj_t)&mp_builtin_sorted_obj);
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    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_sum, (mp_obj_t)&mp_builtin_sum_obj);
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    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_str, (mp_obj_t)&mp_builtin_str_obj);
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    mp_map_add_qstr(&map_builtins, MP_QSTR_bytearray, (mp_obj_t)&mp_builtin_bytearray_obj);
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#if MICROPY_CPYTHON_COMPAT
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    // Precreate sys module, so "import sys" didn't throw exceptions.
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    mp_obj_new_module(QSTR_FROM_STR_STATIC("sys"));
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#endif

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    mp_module_micropython_init();
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    // TODO: wastes one mp_code_t structure in mem
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    next_unique_code_id = 1; // 0 indicates "no code"
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    unique_codes_alloc = 0;
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    unique_codes = NULL;

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#ifdef WRITE_CODE
    fp_write_code = fopen("out-code", "wb");
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#endif
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}

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void rt_deinit(void) {
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    m_del(mp_code_t, unique_codes, unique_codes_alloc);
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    mp_map_free(map_globals);
    mp_map_deinit(&map_loaded_modules);
    mp_map_deinit(&map_builtins);
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#ifdef WRITE_CODE
    if (fp_write_code != NULL) {
        fclose(fp_write_code);
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    }
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#endif
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}

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uint rt_get_unique_code_id(void) {
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    return next_unique_code_id++;
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}

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static void alloc_unique_codes(void) {
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    if (next_unique_code_id > unique_codes_alloc) {
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        DEBUG_printf("allocate more unique codes: " UINT_FMT " -> %u\n", unique_codes_alloc, next_unique_code_id);
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        // increase size of unique_codes table
        unique_codes = m_renew(mp_code_t, unique_codes, unique_codes_alloc, next_unique_code_id);
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        for (uint i = unique_codes_alloc; i < next_unique_code_id; i++) {
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            unique_codes[i].kind = MP_CODE_NONE;
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        }
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        unique_codes_alloc = next_unique_code_id;
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    }
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}

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void rt_assign_byte_code(uint unique_code_id, byte *code, uint len, int n_args, int n_locals, int n_stack, bool is_generator) {
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    alloc_unique_codes();

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    assert(1 <= unique_code_id && unique_code_id < next_unique_code_id && unique_codes[unique_code_id].kind == MP_CODE_NONE);
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    unique_codes[unique_code_id].kind = MP_CODE_BYTE;
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    unique_codes[unique_code_id].is_generator = is_generator;
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    unique_codes[unique_code_id].n_args = n_args;
    unique_codes[unique_code_id].n_state = n_locals + n_stack;
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    unique_codes[unique_code_id].u_byte.code = code;
    unique_codes[unique_code_id].u_byte.len = len;

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    //printf("byte code: %d bytes\n", len);
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#ifdef DEBUG_PRINT
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    DEBUG_printf("assign byte code: id=%d code=%p len=%u n_args=%d n_locals=%d n_stack=%d\n", unique_code_id, code, len, n_args, n_locals, n_stack);
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    for (int i = 0; i < 128 && i < len; i++) {
        if (i > 0 && i % 16 == 0) {
            DEBUG_printf("\n");
        }
        DEBUG_printf(" %02x", code[i]);
    }
    DEBUG_printf("\n");
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#if MICROPY_DEBUG_PRINTERS
    mp_byte_code_print(code, len);
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#endif
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#ifdef WRITE_CODE
    if (fp_write_code != NULL) {
        fwrite(code, len, 1, fp_write_code);
        fflush(fp_write_code);
    }
#endif
#endif
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}

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void rt_assign_native_code(uint unique_code_id, void *fun, uint len, int n_args) {
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    alloc_unique_codes();

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    assert(1 <= unique_code_id && unique_code_id < next_unique_code_id && unique_codes[unique_code_id].kind == MP_CODE_NONE);
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    unique_codes[unique_code_id].kind = MP_CODE_NATIVE;
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    unique_codes[unique_code_id].is_generator = false;
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    unique_codes[unique_code_id].n_args = n_args;
    unique_codes[unique_code_id].n_state = 0;
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    unique_codes[unique_code_id].u_native.fun = fun;

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    //printf("native code: %d bytes\n", len);
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#ifdef DEBUG_PRINT
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    DEBUG_printf("assign native code: id=%d fun=%p len=%u n_args=%d\n", unique_code_id, fun, len, n_args);
    byte *fun_data = (byte*)(((machine_uint_t)fun) & (~1)); // need to clear lower bit in case it's thumb code
    for (int i = 0; i < 128 && i < len; i++) {
        if (i > 0 && i % 16 == 0) {
            DEBUG_printf("\n");
        }
        DEBUG_printf(" %02x", fun_data[i]);
    }
    DEBUG_printf("\n");

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#ifdef WRITE_CODE
    if (fp_write_code != NULL) {
        fwrite(fun_data, len, 1, fp_write_code);
        fflush(fp_write_code);
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    }
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#endif
#endif
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}

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void rt_assign_inline_asm_code(uint unique_code_id, void *fun, uint len, int n_args) {
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    alloc_unique_codes();

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    assert(1 <= unique_code_id && unique_code_id < next_unique_code_id && unique_codes[unique_code_id].kind == MP_CODE_NONE);
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    unique_codes[unique_code_id].kind = MP_CODE_INLINE_ASM;
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    unique_codes[unique_code_id].is_generator = false;
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    unique_codes[unique_code_id].n_args = n_args;
    unique_codes[unique_code_id].n_state = 0;
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    unique_codes[unique_code_id].u_inline_asm.fun = fun;
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#ifdef DEBUG_PRINT
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    DEBUG_printf("assign inline asm code: id=%d fun=%p len=%u n_args=%d\n", unique_code_id, fun, len, n_args);
    byte *fun_data = (byte*)(((machine_uint_t)fun) & (~1)); // need to clear lower bit in case it's thumb code
    for (int i = 0; i < 128 && i < len; i++) {
        if (i > 0 && i % 16 == 0) {
            DEBUG_printf("\n");
        }
        DEBUG_printf(" %02x", fun_data[i]);
    }
    DEBUG_printf("\n");

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#ifdef WRITE_CODE
    if (fp_write_code != NULL) {
        fwrite(fun_data, len, 1, fp_write_code);
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    }
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#endif
#endif
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}

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int rt_is_true(mp_obj_t arg) {
    DEBUG_OP_printf("is true %p\n", arg);
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    if (arg == mp_const_false) {
        return 0;
    } else if (arg == mp_const_true) {
        return 1;
    } else if (arg == mp_const_none) {
        return 0;
    } else if (MP_OBJ_IS_SMALL_INT(arg)) {
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        if (MP_OBJ_SMALL_INT_VALUE(arg) == 0) {
            return 0;
        } else {
            return 1;
        }
    } else {
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        mp_obj_type_t *type = mp_obj_get_type(arg);
        if (type->unary_op != NULL) {
            mp_obj_t result = type->unary_op(RT_UNARY_OP_BOOL, arg);
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            if (result != MP_OBJ_NULL) {
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                return result == mp_const_true;
            }
        }

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        mp_obj_t len = mp_obj_len_maybe(arg);
        if (len != MP_OBJ_NULL) {
            // obj has a length, truth determined if len != 0
            return len != MP_OBJ_NEW_SMALL_INT(0);
        } else {
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            // any other obj is true per Python semantics
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            return 1;
        }
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    }
}

mp_obj_t rt_list_append(mp_obj_t self_in, mp_obj_t arg) {
    return mp_obj_list_append(self_in, arg);
}

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#define PARSE_DEC_IN_INTG (1)
#define PARSE_DEC_IN_FRAC (2)
#define PARSE_DEC_IN_EXP  (3)

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mp_obj_t rt_load_const_dec(qstr qstr) {
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#if MICROPY_ENABLE_FLOAT
    DEBUG_OP_printf("load '%s'\n", qstr_str(qstr));
    const char *s = qstr_str(qstr);
    int in = PARSE_DEC_IN_INTG;
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    mp_float_t dec_val = 0;
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    bool exp_neg = false;
    int exp_val = 0;
    int exp_extra = 0;
    bool imag = false;
    for (; *s; s++) {
        int dig = *s;
        if ('0' <= dig && dig <= '9') {
            dig -= '0';
            if (in == PARSE_DEC_IN_EXP) {
                exp_val = 10 * exp_val + dig;
            } else {
                dec_val = 10 * dec_val + dig;
                if (in == PARSE_DEC_IN_FRAC) {
                    exp_extra -= 1;
                }
            }
        } else if (in == PARSE_DEC_IN_INTG && dig == '.') {
            in = PARSE_DEC_IN_FRAC;
        } else if (in != PARSE_DEC_IN_EXP && (dig == 'E' || dig == 'e')) {
            in = PARSE_DEC_IN_EXP;
            if (s[1] == '+') {
                s++;
            } else if (s[1] == '-') {
                s++;
                exp_neg = true;
            }
        } else if (dig == 'J' || dig == 'j') {
            s++;
            imag = true;
            break;
        } else {
            // unknown character
            break;
        }
    }
    if (*s != 0) {
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        nlr_jump(mp_obj_new_exception_msg(MP_QSTR_SyntaxError, "invalid syntax for number"));
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    }
    if (exp_neg) {
        exp_val = -exp_val;
    }
    exp_val += exp_extra;
    for (; exp_val > 0; exp_val--) {
        dec_val *= 10;
    }
    for (; exp_val < 0; exp_val++) {
        dec_val *= 0.1;
    }
    if (imag) {
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        return mp_obj_new_complex(0, dec_val);
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    } else {
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        return mp_obj_new_float(dec_val);
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    }
#else
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    nlr_jump(mp_obj_new_exception_msg(MP_QSTR_SyntaxError, "decimal numbers not supported"));
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#endif
}

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mp_obj_t rt_load_const_str(qstr qstr) {
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    DEBUG_OP_printf("load '%s'\n", qstr_str(qstr));
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    return MP_OBJ_NEW_QSTR(qstr);
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}

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mp_obj_t rt_load_const_bytes(qstr qstr) {
    DEBUG_OP_printf("load b'%s'\n", qstr_str(qstr));
    uint len;
    const byte *data = qstr_data(qstr, &len);
    return mp_obj_new_bytes(data, len);
}

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mp_obj_t rt_load_name(qstr qstr) {
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    // logic: search locals, globals, builtins
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    DEBUG_OP_printf("load name %s\n", qstr_str(qstr));
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    mp_map_elem_t *elem = mp_map_lookup(map_locals, MP_OBJ_NEW_QSTR(qstr), MP_MAP_LOOKUP);
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    if (elem == NULL) {
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        elem = mp_map_lookup(map_globals, MP_OBJ_NEW_QSTR(qstr), MP_MAP_LOOKUP);
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        if (elem == NULL) {
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            elem = mp_map_lookup(&map_builtins, MP_OBJ_NEW_QSTR(qstr), MP_MAP_LOOKUP);
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            if (elem == NULL) {
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                nlr_jump(mp_obj_new_exception_msg_varg(MP_QSTR_NameError, "name '%s' is not defined", qstr_str(qstr)));
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            }
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        }
    }
    return elem->value;
}

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mp_obj_t rt_load_global(qstr qstr) {
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    // logic: search globals, builtins
    DEBUG_OP_printf("load global %s\n", qstr_str(qstr));
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    mp_map_elem_t *elem = mp_map_lookup(map_globals, MP_OBJ_NEW_QSTR(qstr), MP_MAP_LOOKUP);
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    if (elem == NULL) {
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        elem = mp_map_lookup(&map_builtins, MP_OBJ_NEW_QSTR(qstr), MP_MAP_LOOKUP);
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        if (elem == NULL) {
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            nlr_jump(mp_obj_new_exception_msg_varg(MP_QSTR_NameError, "name '%s' is not defined", qstr_str(qstr)));
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        }
    }
    return elem->value;
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}

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mp_obj_t rt_load_build_class(void) {
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    DEBUG_OP_printf("load_build_class\n");
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    mp_map_elem_t *elem = mp_map_lookup(&map_builtins, MP_OBJ_NEW_QSTR(MP_QSTR___build_class__), MP_MAP_LOOKUP);
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    if (elem == NULL) {
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        nlr_jump(mp_obj_new_exception_msg(MP_QSTR_NameError, "name '__build_class__' is not defined"));
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    }
    return elem->value;
}

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mp_obj_t rt_get_cell(mp_obj_t cell) {
    return mp_obj_cell_get(cell);
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}

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void rt_set_cell(mp_obj_t cell, mp_obj_t val) {
    mp_obj_cell_set(cell, val);
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}

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void rt_store_name(qstr qstr, mp_obj_t obj) {
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    DEBUG_OP_printf("store name %s <- %p\n", qstr_str(qstr), obj);
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    mp_map_lookup(map_locals, MP_OBJ_NEW_QSTR(qstr), MP_MAP_LOOKUP_ADD_IF_NOT_FOUND)->value = obj;
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}

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void rt_store_global(qstr qstr, mp_obj_t obj) {
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    DEBUG_OP_printf("store global %s <- %p\n", qstr_str(qstr), obj);
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    mp_map_lookup(map_globals, MP_OBJ_NEW_QSTR(qstr), MP_MAP_LOOKUP_ADD_IF_NOT_FOUND)->value = obj;
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}

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mp_obj_t rt_unary_op(int op, mp_obj_t arg) {
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    DEBUG_OP_printf("unary %d %p\n", op, arg);
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    if (MP_OBJ_IS_SMALL_INT(arg)) {
        mp_small_int_t val = MP_OBJ_SMALL_INT_VALUE(arg);
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        switch (op) {
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            case RT_UNARY_OP_BOOL: return MP_BOOL(val != 0);
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            case RT_UNARY_OP_POSITIVE: break;
            case RT_UNARY_OP_NEGATIVE: val = -val; break;
            case RT_UNARY_OP_INVERT: val = ~val; break;
            default: assert(0); val = 0;
        }
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        if (MP_OBJ_FITS_SMALL_INT(val)) {
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            return MP_OBJ_NEW_SMALL_INT(val);
        }
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        return mp_obj_new_int(val);
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    } else {
        mp_obj_type_t *type = mp_obj_get_type(arg);
        if (type->unary_op != NULL) {
            mp_obj_t result = type->unary_op(op, arg);
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            if (result != NULL) {
                return result;
            }
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        }
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        // TODO specify in error message what the operator is
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        nlr_jump(mp_obj_new_exception_msg_varg(MP_QSTR_TypeError, "bad operand type for unary operator: '%s'", type->name));
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    }
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}

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mp_obj_t rt_binary_op(int op, mp_obj_t lhs, mp_obj_t rhs) {
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    DEBUG_OP_printf("binary %d %p %p\n", op, lhs, rhs);
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    // TODO correctly distinguish inplace operators for mutable objects
    // lookup logic that CPython uses for +=:
    //   check for implemented +=
    //   then check for implemented +
    //   then check for implemented seq.inplace_concat
    //   then check for implemented seq.concat
    //   then fail
    // note that list does not implement + or +=, so that inplace_concat is reached first for +=

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    // deal with is
    if (op == RT_BINARY_OP_IS) {
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        // TODO: may need to handle strings specially, CPython appears to
        // assume all strings are interned (so "is" == "==" for strings)
        return MP_BOOL(lhs == rhs);
    }

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    // deal with == and != for all types
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    if (op == RT_BINARY_OP_EQUAL || op == RT_BINARY_OP_NOT_EQUAL) {
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        if (mp_obj_equal(lhs, rhs)) {
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            if (op == RT_BINARY_OP_EQUAL) {
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                return mp_const_true;
            } else {
                return mp_const_false;
            }
        } else {
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            if (op == RT_BINARY_OP_EQUAL) {
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                return mp_const_false;
            } else {
                return mp_const_true;
            }
        }
    }

    // deal with exception_match for all types
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    if (op == RT_BINARY_OP_EXCEPTION_MATCH) {
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        // TODO properly! at the moment it just compares the exception identifier for equality
        if (MP_OBJ_IS_TYPE(lhs, &exception_type) && MP_OBJ_IS_TYPE(rhs, &exception_type)) {
            if (mp_obj_exception_get_type(lhs) == mp_obj_exception_get_type(rhs)) {
                return mp_const_true;
            } else {
                return mp_const_false;
            }
        }
    }

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    if (MP_OBJ_IS_SMALL_INT(lhs)) {
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        mp_small_int_t lhs_val = MP_OBJ_SMALL_INT_VALUE(lhs);
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        if (MP_OBJ_IS_SMALL_INT(rhs)) {
            mp_small_int_t rhs_val = MP_OBJ_SMALL_INT_VALUE(rhs);
            switch (op) {
                case RT_BINARY_OP_OR:
                case RT_BINARY_OP_INPLACE_OR: lhs_val |= rhs_val; break;
                case RT_BINARY_OP_XOR:
                case RT_BINARY_OP_INPLACE_XOR: lhs_val ^= rhs_val; break;
                case RT_BINARY_OP_AND:
                case RT_BINARY_OP_INPLACE_AND: lhs_val &= rhs_val; break;
                case RT_BINARY_OP_LSHIFT:
                case RT_BINARY_OP_INPLACE_LSHIFT: lhs_val <<= rhs_val; break;
                case RT_BINARY_OP_RSHIFT:
                case RT_BINARY_OP_INPLACE_RSHIFT: lhs_val >>= rhs_val; break;
                case RT_BINARY_OP_ADD:
                case RT_BINARY_OP_INPLACE_ADD: lhs_val += rhs_val; break;
                case RT_BINARY_OP_SUBTRACT:
                case RT_BINARY_OP_INPLACE_SUBTRACT: lhs_val -= rhs_val; break;
                case RT_BINARY_OP_MULTIPLY:
                case RT_BINARY_OP_INPLACE_MULTIPLY: lhs_val *= rhs_val; break;
                case RT_BINARY_OP_FLOOR_DIVIDE:
                case RT_BINARY_OP_INPLACE_FLOOR_DIVIDE: lhs_val /= rhs_val; break;
    #if MICROPY_ENABLE_FLOAT
                case RT_BINARY_OP_TRUE_DIVIDE:
                case RT_BINARY_OP_INPLACE_TRUE_DIVIDE: return mp_obj_new_float((mp_float_t)lhs_val / (mp_float_t)rhs_val);
    #endif

                // TODO implement modulo as specified by Python
                case RT_BINARY_OP_MODULO:
                case RT_BINARY_OP_INPLACE_MODULO: lhs_val %= rhs_val; break;

                // TODO check for negative power, and overflow
                case RT_BINARY_OP_POWER:
                case RT_BINARY_OP_INPLACE_POWER:
                {
                    int ans = 1;
                    while (rhs_val > 0) {
                        if (rhs_val & 1) {
                            ans *= lhs_val;
                        }
                        lhs_val *= lhs_val;
                        rhs_val /= 2;
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                    }
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                    lhs_val = ans;
                    break;
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                }
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                case RT_BINARY_OP_LESS: return MP_BOOL(lhs_val < rhs_val); break;
                case RT_BINARY_OP_MORE: return MP_BOOL(lhs_val > rhs_val); break;
                case RT_BINARY_OP_LESS_EQUAL: return MP_BOOL(lhs_val <= rhs_val); break;
                case RT_BINARY_OP_MORE_EQUAL: return MP_BOOL(lhs_val >= rhs_val); break;
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                default: assert(0);
            }
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            // TODO: We just should make mp_obj_new_int() inline and use that
            if (MP_OBJ_FITS_SMALL_INT(lhs_val)) {
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                return MP_OBJ_NEW_SMALL_INT(lhs_val);
            }
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            return mp_obj_new_int(lhs_val);
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#if MICROPY_ENABLE_FLOAT
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        } else if (MP_OBJ_IS_TYPE(rhs, &float_type)) {
            return mp_obj_float_binary_op(op, lhs_val, rhs);
        } else if (MP_OBJ_IS_TYPE(rhs, &complex_type)) {
            return mp_obj_complex_binary_op(op, lhs_val, 0, rhs);
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#endif
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        }
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    }
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    /* deal with `in`
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     *
     * NOTE `a in b` is `b.__contains__(a)`, hence why the generic dispatch
     * needs to go below
     */
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    if (op == RT_BINARY_OP_IN) {
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        mp_obj_type_t *type = mp_obj_get_type(rhs);
        if (type->binary_op != NULL) {
            mp_obj_t res = type->binary_op(op, rhs, lhs);
            if (res != NULL) {
                return res;
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            }
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        }
        if (type->getiter != NULL) {
            /* second attempt, walk the iterator */
            mp_obj_t next = NULL;
            mp_obj_t iter = rt_getiter(rhs);
            while ((next = rt_iternext(iter)) != mp_const_stop_iteration) {
                if (mp_obj_equal(next, lhs)) {
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                    return mp_const_true;
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                }
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            }
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            return mp_const_false;
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        }

        nlr_jump(mp_obj_new_exception_msg_varg(
                     MP_QSTR_TypeError, "'%s' object is not iterable",
                     mp_obj_get_type_str(rhs)));
        return mp_const_none;
    }

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    // generic binary_op supplied by type
    mp_obj_type_t *type = mp_obj_get_type(lhs);
    if (type->binary_op != NULL) {
        mp_obj_t result = type->binary_op(op, lhs, rhs);
        if (result != MP_OBJ_NULL) {
            return result;
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        }
    }
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    // TODO implement dispatch for reverse binary ops

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    // TODO specify in error message what the operator is
    nlr_jump(mp_obj_new_exception_msg_varg(MP_QSTR_TypeError,
        "unsupported operand types for binary operator: '%s', '%s'",
        mp_obj_get_type_str(lhs), mp_obj_get_type_str(rhs)));
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    return mp_const_none;
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}

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mp_obj_t rt_make_function_from_id(int unique_code_id, mp_obj_t def_args) {
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    DEBUG_OP_printf("make_function_from_id %d\n", unique_code_id);
    if (unique_code_id < 1 || unique_code_id >= next_unique_code_id) {
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        // illegal code id
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        return mp_const_none;
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    }
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    // make the function, depending on the code kind
    mp_code_t *c = &unique_codes[unique_code_id];
    mp_obj_t fun;
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    switch (c->kind) {
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        case MP_CODE_BYTE:
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            fun = mp_obj_new_fun_bc(c->n_args, def_args, c->n_state, c->u_byte.code);
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            break;
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        case MP_CODE_NATIVE:
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            fun = rt_make_function_n(c->n_args, c->u_native.fun);
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            break;
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        case MP_CODE_INLINE_ASM:
            fun = mp_obj_new_fun_asm(c->n_args, c->u_inline_asm.fun);
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            break;
        default:
            assert(0);
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            fun = mp_const_none;
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    }
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    // check for generator functions and if so wrap in generator object
    if (c->is_generator) {
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        fun = mp_obj_new_gen_wrap(fun);
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    }

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    return fun;
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}

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mp_obj_t rt_make_closure_from_id(int unique_code_id, mp_obj_t closure_tuple) {
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    DEBUG_OP_printf("make_closure_from_id %d\n", unique_code_id);
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    // make function object
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    mp_obj_t ffun = rt_make_function_from_id(unique_code_id, MP_OBJ_NULL);
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    // wrap function in closure object
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    return mp_obj_new_closure(ffun, closure_tuple);
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}

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mp_obj_t rt_call_function_0(mp_obj_t fun) {
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    return rt_call_function_n_kw(fun, 0, 0, NULL);
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}

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mp_obj_t rt_call_function_1(mp_obj_t fun, mp_obj_t arg) {
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    return rt_call_function_n_kw(fun, 1, 0, &arg);
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}

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mp_obj_t rt_call_function_2(mp_obj_t fun, mp_obj_t arg1, mp_obj_t arg2) {
    mp_obj_t args[2];
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    args[0] = arg1;
    args[1] = arg2;
    return rt_call_function_n_kw(fun, 2, 0, args);
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}

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// args contains, eg: arg0  arg1  key0  value0  key1  value1
mp_obj_t rt_call_function_n_kw(mp_obj_t fun_in, uint n_args, uint n_kw, const mp_obj_t *args) {
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    // TODO improve this: fun object can specify its type and we parse here the arguments,
    // passing to the function arrays of fixed and keyword arguments
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    DEBUG_OP_printf("calling function %p(n_args=%d, n_kw=%d, args=%p)\n", fun_in, n_args, n_kw, args);

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    // get the type
    mp_obj_type_t *type = mp_obj_get_type(fun_in);

    // do the call
    if (type->call != NULL) {
        return type->call(fun_in, n_args, n_kw, args);
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    } else {
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        nlr_jump(mp_obj_new_exception_msg_varg(MP_QSTR_TypeError, "'%s' object is not callable", type->name));
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    }
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}

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// args contains: fun  self/NULL  arg(0)  ...  arg(n_args-2)  arg(n_args-1)  kw_key(0)  kw_val(0)  ... kw_key(n_kw-1)  kw_val(n_kw-1)
// if n_args==0 and n_kw==0 then there are only fun and self/NULL
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mp_obj_t rt_call_method_n_kw(uint n_args, uint n_kw, const mp_obj_t *args) {
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    DEBUG_OP_printf("call method (fun=%p, self=%p, n_args=%u, n_kw=%u, args=%p)\n", args[0], args[1], n_args, n_kw, args);
    int adjust = (args[1] == NULL) ? 0 : 1;
    return rt_call_function_n_kw(args[0], n_args + adjust, n_kw, args + 2 - adjust);
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}

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mp_obj_t rt_build_tuple(int n_args, mp_obj_t *items) {
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    return mp_obj_new_tuple(n_args, items);
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}

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mp_obj_t rt_build_list(int n_args, mp_obj_t *items) {
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    return mp_obj_new_list(n_args, items);
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}

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mp_obj_t rt_build_set(int n_args, mp_obj_t *items) {
    return mp_obj_new_set(n_args, items);
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}

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mp_obj_t rt_store_set(mp_obj_t set, mp_obj_t item) {
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    mp_obj_set_store(set, item);
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    return set;
}

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// unpacked items are stored in reverse order into the array pointed to by items
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void rt_unpack_sequence(mp_obj_t seq_in, uint num, mp_obj_t *items) {
    if (MP_OBJ_IS_TYPE(seq_in, &tuple_type) || MP_OBJ_IS_TYPE(seq_in, &list_type)) {
        uint seq_len;
        mp_obj_t *seq_items;
        if (MP_OBJ_IS_TYPE(seq_in, &tuple_type)) {
            mp_obj_tuple_get(seq_in, &seq_len, &seq_items);
        } else {
            mp_obj_list_get(seq_in, &seq_len, &seq_items);
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        }
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        if (seq_len < num) {
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            nlr_jump(mp_obj_new_exception_msg_varg(MP_QSTR_ValueError, "need more than %d values to unpack", (void*)(machine_uint_t)seq_len));
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        } else if (seq_len > num) {
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            nlr_jump(mp_obj_new_exception_msg_varg(MP_QSTR_ValueError, "too many values to unpack (expected %d)", (void*)(machine_uint_t)num));
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        }
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        for (uint i = 0; i < num; i++) {
            items[i] = seq_items[num - 1 - i];
        }
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    } else {
        // TODO call rt_getiter and extract via rt_iternext
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        nlr_jump(mp_obj_new_exception_msg_varg(MP_QSTR_TypeError, "'%s' object is not iterable", mp_obj_get_type_str(seq_in)));
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    }
}

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mp_obj_t rt_build_map(int n_args) {
    return mp_obj_new_dict(n_args);
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}

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mp_obj_t rt_store_map(mp_obj_t map, mp_obj_t key, mp_obj_t value) {
    // map should always be a dict
    return mp_obj_dict_store(map, key, value);
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}

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mp_obj_t rt_load_attr(mp_obj_t base, qstr attr) {
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    DEBUG_OP_printf("load attr %p.%s\n", base, qstr_str(attr));
    // use load_method
    mp_obj_t dest[2];
    rt_load_method(base, attr, dest);
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    if (dest[1] == MP_OBJ_NULL) {
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        // load_method returned just a normal attribute
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        return dest[0];
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    } else {
        // load_method returned a method, so build a bound method object
        return mp_obj_new_bound_meth(dest[0], dest[1]);
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    }
}

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// no attribute found, returns:     dest[0] == MP_OBJ_NULL, dest[1] == MP_OBJ_NULL
// normal attribute found, returns: dest[0] == <attribute>, dest[1] == MP_OBJ_NULL
// method attribute found, returns: dest[0] == <method>,    dest[1] == <self>
static void rt_load_method_maybe(mp_obj_t base, qstr attr, mp_obj_t *dest) {
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    // clear output to indicate no attribute/method found yet
    dest[0] = MP_OBJ_NULL;
    dest[1] = MP_OBJ_NULL;

    // get the type
    mp_obj_type_t *type = mp_obj_get_type(base);

    // if this type can do its own load, then call it
    if (type->load_attr != NULL) {
        type->load_attr(base, attr, dest);
    }

    // if nothing found yet, look for built-in and generic names
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    if (dest[0] == MP_OBJ_NULL) {
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        if (attr == MP_QSTR___next__ && type->iternext != NULL) {
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            dest[0] = (mp_obj_t)&mp_builtin_next_obj;
            dest[1] = base;
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        } else if (type->load_attr == NULL) {
            // generic method lookup if type didn't provide a specific one
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            // this is a lookup in the object (ie not class or type)
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            const mp_method_t *meth = type->methods;
            if (meth != NULL) {
                for (; meth->name != NULL; meth++) {
                    if (strcmp(meth->name, qstr_str(attr)) == 0) {
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                        // check if the methods are functions, static or class methods
                        // see http://docs.python.org/3.3/howto/descriptor.html
                        if (MP_OBJ_IS_TYPE(meth->fun, &mp_type_staticmethod)) {
                            // return just the function
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                            dest[0] = ((mp_obj_staticmethod_t*)meth->fun)->fun;
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                        } else if (MP_OBJ_IS_TYPE(meth->fun, &mp_type_classmethod)) {
                            // return a bound method, with self being the type of this object
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                            dest[0] = ((mp_obj_classmethod_t*)meth->fun)->fun;
                            dest[1] = mp_obj_get_type(base);
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                        } else {
                            // return a bound method, with self being this object
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                            dest[0] = (mp_obj_t)meth->fun;
                            dest[1] = base;
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                        }
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                        break;
                    }
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                }
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            }
        }
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    }
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}

void rt_load_method(mp_obj_t base, qstr attr, mp_obj_t *dest) {
    DEBUG_OP_printf("load method %p.%s\n", base, qstr_str(attr));

    rt_load_method_maybe(base, attr, dest);
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    if (dest[0] == MP_OBJ_NULL) {
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        // no attribute/method called attr
        // following CPython, we give a more detailed error message for type objects
        if (MP_OBJ_IS_TYPE(base, &mp_const_type)) {
            nlr_jump(mp_obj_new_exception_msg_varg(MP_QSTR_AttributeError, "type object '%s' has no attribute '%s'", ((mp_obj_type_t*)base)->name, qstr_str(attr)));
        } else {
            nlr_jump(mp_obj_new_exception_msg_varg(MP_QSTR_AttributeError, "'%s' object has no attribute '%s'", mp_obj_get_type_str(base), qstr_str(attr)));
        }
    }
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}

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void rt_store_attr(mp_obj_t base, qstr attr, mp_obj_t value) {
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    DEBUG_OP_printf("store attr %p.%s <- %p\n", base, qstr_str(attr), value);
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    mp_obj_type_t *type = mp_obj_get_type(base);
    if (type->store_attr != NULL) {
        if (type->store_attr(base, attr, value)) {
            return;
        }
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    }
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    nlr_jump(mp_obj_new_exception_msg_varg(MP_QSTR_AttributeError, "'%s' object has no attribute '%s'", mp_obj_get_type_str(base), qstr_str(attr)));
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}

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void rt_store_subscr(mp_obj_t base, mp_obj_t index, mp_obj_t value) {
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    DEBUG_OP_printf("store subscr %p[%p] <- %p\n", base, index, value);
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    if (MP_OBJ_IS_TYPE(base, &list_type)) {
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        // list store
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        mp_obj_list_store(base, index, value);
    } else if (MP_OBJ_IS_TYPE(base, &dict_type)) {
        // dict store
        mp_obj_dict_store(base, index, value);
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    } else {
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        mp_obj_type_t *type = mp_obj_get_type(base);
        if (type->store_item != NULL) {
            bool