runtime.c 75.3 KB
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// in principle, rt_xxx functions are called only by vm/native/viper and make assumptions about args
// py_xxx functions are safer and can be called by anyone
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// note that rt_assign_xxx are called only from emit*, and maybe we can rename them to reflect this
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#include <stdint.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
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#include <stdarg.h>
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#include <string.h>
#include <assert.h>

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#include "nlr.h"
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#include "misc.h"
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#include "mpyconfig.h"
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#include "runtime.h"
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#include "bc.h"
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#if 0 // print debugging info
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#define DEBUG_PRINT (1)
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#define WRITE_CODE (1)
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#define DEBUG_printf(args...) printf(args)
#define DEBUG_OP_printf(args...) printf(args)
#else // don't print debugging info
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#define DEBUG_printf(args...) (void)0
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#define DEBUG_OP_printf(args...) (void)0
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#endif
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typedef machine_int_t py_small_int_t;

#define IS_O(o, k) (((((py_small_int_t)(o)) & 1) == 0) && (((py_obj_base_t*)(o))->kind == (k)))
#define IS_SMALL_INT(o) (((py_small_int_t)(o)) & 1)
#define FROM_SMALL_INT(o) (((py_small_int_t)(o)) >> 1)
#define TO_SMALL_INT(o) ((py_obj_t)(((o) << 1) | 1))

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#if MICROPY_ENABLE_FLOAT
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typedef machine_float_t py_float_t;
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#endif

typedef enum {
    O_CONST,
    O_STR,
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#if MICROPY_ENABLE_FLOAT
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    O_FLOAT,
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    O_COMPLEX,
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#endif
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    O_EXCEPTION_0,
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    O_EXCEPTION_N,
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    O_RANGE,
    O_RANGE_IT,
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    O_FUN_0,
    O_FUN_1,
    O_FUN_2,
    O_FUN_N,
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    O_FUN_VAR,
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    O_FUN_BC,
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    O_FUN_ASM,
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    O_GEN_WRAP,
    O_GEN_INSTANCE,
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    O_BOUND_METH,
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    O_TUPLE,
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    O_LIST,
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    O_TUPLE_IT,
    O_LIST_IT,
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    O_SET,
    O_MAP,
    O_CLASS,
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    O_OBJ,
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    O_USER,
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} py_obj_kind_t;

typedef enum {
    MAP_QSTR,
    MAP_PY_OBJ,
} py_map_kind_t;

typedef struct _py_map_elem_t {
    py_obj_t key;
    py_obj_t value;
} py_map_elem_t;

typedef struct _py_map_t {
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    struct {
        py_map_kind_t kind : 1;
        machine_uint_t used : (8 * BYTES_PER_WORD - 1);
    };
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    machine_uint_t alloc;
    py_map_elem_t *table;
} py_map_t;

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typedef struct _py_obj_base_t py_obj_base_t;

struct _py_obj_base_t {
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    py_obj_kind_t kind;
    union {
        const char *id;
        qstr u_str;
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#if MICROPY_ENABLE_FLOAT
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        py_float_t u_float; // for O_FLOAT
        struct { // for O_COMPLEX
            py_float_t real;
            py_float_t imag;
        } u_complex;
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#endif
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        struct { // for O_EXCEPTION_0
            qstr id;
        } u_exc0;
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        struct { // for O_EXCEPTION_N
            // TODO make generic object or something
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            qstr id;
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            int n_args;
            const void **args;
        } u_exc_n;
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        struct { // for O_RANGE
            // TODO make generic object or something
            machine_int_t start;
            machine_int_t stop;
            machine_int_t step;
        } u_range;
        struct { // for O_RANGE_IT
            // TODO make generic object or something
            machine_int_t cur;
            machine_int_t stop;
            machine_int_t step;
        } u_range_it;
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        struct { // for O_FUN_[012N], O_FUN_VAR
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            int n_args;
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            void *fun;
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        } u_fun;
        struct { // for O_FUN_BC
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            int n_args;
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            uint n_state;
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            byte *code;
        } u_fun_bc;
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        struct { // for O_FUN_ASM
            int n_args;
            void *fun;
        } u_fun_asm;
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        struct { // for O_GEN_WRAP
            int n_state;
            py_obj_base_t *fun;
        } u_gen_wrap;
        struct { // for O_GEN_INSTANCE
            py_obj_t *state;
            const byte *ip;
            py_obj_t *sp;
        } u_gen_instance;
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        struct { // for O_BOUND_METH
            py_obj_t meth;
            py_obj_t self;
        } u_bound_meth;
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        struct { // for O_TUPLE, O_LIST
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            machine_uint_t alloc;
            machine_uint_t len;
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            py_obj_t *items;
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        } u_tuple_list;
        struct { // for O_TUPLE_IT, O_LIST_IT
            py_obj_base_t *obj;
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            machine_uint_t cur;
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        } u_tuple_list_it;
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        struct { // for O_SET
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            machine_uint_t alloc;
            machine_uint_t used;
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            py_obj_t *table;
        } u_set;
        py_map_t u_map; // for O_MAP
        struct { // for O_CLASS
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            py_map_t *locals;
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        } u_class;
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        struct { // for O_OBJ
            py_obj_base_t *class; // points to a O_CLASS object
            py_map_t *members;
        } u_obj;
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        struct { // for O_USER
            const py_user_info_t *info;
            machine_uint_t data1;
            machine_uint_t data2;
        } u_user;
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    };
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};
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static qstr q_append;
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static qstr q_pop;
static qstr q_sort;
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static qstr q_join;
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static qstr q_format;
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static qstr q___build_class__;
static qstr q___next__;
static qstr q_AttributeError;
static qstr q_IndexError;
static qstr q_KeyError;
static qstr q_NameError;
static qstr q_TypeError;
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static qstr q_SyntaxError;
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static qstr q_ValueError;
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py_obj_t py_const_none;
py_obj_t py_const_false;
py_obj_t py_const_true;
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py_obj_t py_const_stop_iteration;
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// locals and globals need to be pointers because they can be the same in outer module scope
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static py_map_t *map_locals;
static py_map_t *map_globals;
static py_map_t map_builtins;
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// approximatelly doubling primes; made with Mathematica command: Table[Prime[Floor[(1.7)^n]], {n, 3, 24}]
static int doubling_primes[] = {7, 19, 43, 89, 179, 347, 647, 1229, 2297, 4243, 7829, 14347, 26017, 47149, 84947, 152443, 273253, 488399, 869927, 1547173, 2745121, 4861607};

int get_doubling_prime_greater_or_equal_to(int x) {
    for (int i = 0; i < sizeof(doubling_primes) / sizeof(int); i++) {
        if (doubling_primes[i] >= x) {
            return doubling_primes[i];
        }
    }
    // ran out of primes in the table!
    // return something sensible, at least make it odd
    return x | 1;
}

void py_map_init(py_map_t *map, py_map_kind_t kind, int n) {
    map->kind = kind;
    map->used = 0;
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    map->alloc = get_doubling_prime_greater_or_equal_to(n + 1);
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    map->table = m_new0(py_map_elem_t, map->alloc);
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}

py_map_t *py_map_new(py_map_kind_t kind, int n) {
    py_map_t *map = m_new(py_map_t, 1);
    py_map_init(map, kind, n);
    return map;
}

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machine_int_t py_obj_hash(py_obj_t o_in) {
    if (o_in == py_const_false) {
        return 0; // needs to hash to same as the integer 0, since False==0
    } else if (o_in == py_const_true) {
        return 1; // needs to hash to same as the integer 1, since True==1
    } else if (IS_SMALL_INT(o_in)) {
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        return FROM_SMALL_INT(o_in);
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    } else if (IS_O(o_in, O_CONST)) {
        return (machine_int_t)o_in;
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    } else if (IS_O(o_in, O_STR)) {
        return ((py_obj_base_t*)o_in)->u_str;
    } else {
        assert(0);
        return 0;
    }
}

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// this function implements the '==' operator (and so the inverse of '!=')
// from the python language reference:
// "The objects need not have the same type. If both are numbers, they are converted
// to a common type. Otherwise, the == and != operators always consider objects of
// different types to be unequal."
// note also that False==0 and True==1 are true expressions
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bool py_obj_equal(py_obj_t o1, py_obj_t o2) {
    if (o1 == o2) {
        return true;
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    } else if (IS_SMALL_INT(o1) || IS_SMALL_INT(o2)) {
        if (IS_SMALL_INT(o1) && IS_SMALL_INT(o2)) {
            return false;
        } else {
            if (IS_SMALL_INT(o2)) {
                py_obj_t temp = o1; o1 = o2; o2 = temp;
            }
            // o1 is the SMALL_INT, o2 is not
            py_small_int_t val = FROM_SMALL_INT(o1);
            if (o2 == py_const_false) {
                return val == 0;
            } else if (o2 == py_const_true) {
                return val == 1;
            } else {
                return false;
            }
        }
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    } else if (IS_O(o1, O_STR) && IS_O(o2, O_STR)) {
        return ((py_obj_base_t*)o1)->u_str == ((py_obj_base_t*)o2)->u_str;
    } else {
        assert(0);
        return false;
    }
}

py_map_elem_t* py_map_lookup_helper(py_map_t *map, py_obj_t index, bool add_if_not_found) {
    bool is_map_py_obj = (map->kind == MAP_PY_OBJ);
    machine_uint_t hash;
    if (is_map_py_obj) {
        hash = py_obj_hash(index);
    } else {
        hash = (machine_uint_t)index;
    }
    uint pos = hash % map->alloc;
    for (;;) {
        py_map_elem_t *elem = &map->table[pos];
        if (elem->key == NULL) {
            // not in table
            if (add_if_not_found) {
                if (map->used + 1 >= map->alloc) {
                    // not enough room in table, rehash it
                    int old_alloc = map->alloc;
                    py_map_elem_t *old_table = map->table;
                    map->alloc = get_doubling_prime_greater_or_equal_to(map->alloc + 1);
                    map->used = 0;
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                    map->table = m_new0(py_map_elem_t, map->alloc);
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                    for (int i = 0; i < old_alloc; i++) {
                        if (old_table[i].key != NULL) {
                            py_map_lookup_helper(map, old_table[i].key, true)->value = old_table[i].value;
                        }
                    }
                    m_free(old_table);
                    // restart the search for the new element
                    pos = hash % map->alloc;
                } else {
                    map->used += 1;
                    elem->key = index;
                    return elem;
                }
            } else {
                return NULL;
            }
        } else if (elem->key == index || (is_map_py_obj && py_obj_equal(elem->key, index))) {
            // found it
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            /* it seems CPython does not replace the index; try x={True:'true'};x[1]='one';x
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            if (add_if_not_found) {
                elem->key = index;
            }
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            */
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            return elem;
        } else {
            // not yet found, keep searching in this table
            pos = (pos + 1) % map->alloc;
        }
    }
}

py_map_elem_t* py_qstr_map_lookup(py_map_t *map, qstr index, bool add_if_not_found) {
    py_obj_t o = (py_obj_t)(machine_uint_t)index;
    return py_map_lookup_helper(map, o, add_if_not_found);
}

py_map_elem_t* py_map_lookup(py_obj_t o, py_obj_t index, bool add_if_not_found) {
    assert(IS_O(o, O_MAP));
    return py_map_lookup_helper(&((py_obj_base_t *)o)->u_map, index, add_if_not_found);
}

static bool fit_small_int(py_small_int_t o) {
    return true;
}

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py_obj_t py_obj_new_int(machine_int_t value) {
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    return TO_SMALL_INT(value);
}

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py_obj_t py_obj_new_const(const char *id) {
    py_obj_base_t *o = m_new(py_obj_base_t, 1);
    o->kind = O_CONST;
    o->id = id;
    return (py_obj_t)o;
}

py_obj_t py_obj_new_str(qstr qstr) {
    py_obj_base_t *o = m_new(py_obj_base_t, 1);
    o->kind = O_STR;
    o->u_str = qstr;
    return (py_obj_t)o;
}

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#if MICROPY_ENABLE_FLOAT
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py_obj_t py_obj_new_float(py_float_t val) {
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    py_obj_base_t *o = m_new(py_obj_base_t, 1);
    o->kind = O_FLOAT;
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    o->u_float = val;
    return (py_obj_t)o;
}

py_obj_t py_obj_new_complex(py_float_t real, py_float_t imag) {
    py_obj_base_t *o = m_new(py_obj_base_t, 1);
    o->kind = O_COMPLEX;
    o->u_complex.real = real;
    o->u_complex.imag = imag;
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    return (py_obj_t)o;
}
#endif

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py_obj_t py_obj_new_exception_0(qstr id) {
    py_obj_base_t *o = m_new(py_obj_base_t, 1);
    o->kind = O_EXCEPTION_0;
    o->u_exc0.id = id;
    return (py_obj_t)o;
}

py_obj_t py_obj_new_exception_2(qstr id, const char *fmt, const char *s1, const char *s2) {
    py_obj_base_t *o = m_new(py_obj_base_t, 1);
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    o->kind = O_EXCEPTION_N;
    o->u_exc_n.id = id;
    o->u_exc_n.n_args = 3;
    o->u_exc_n.args = m_new(const void*, 3);
    o->u_exc_n.args[0] = fmt;
    o->u_exc_n.args[1] = s1;
    o->u_exc_n.args[2] = s2;
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    return (py_obj_t)o;
}

// range is a class and instances are immutable sequence objects
py_obj_t py_obj_new_range(int start, int stop, int step) {
    py_obj_base_t *o = m_new(py_obj_base_t, 1);
    o->kind = O_RANGE;
    o->u_range.start = start;
    o->u_range.stop = stop;
    o->u_range.step = step;
    return o;
}

py_obj_t py_obj_new_range_iterator(int cur, int stop, int step) {
    py_obj_base_t *o = m_new(py_obj_base_t, 1);
    o->kind = O_RANGE_IT;
    o->u_range_it.cur = cur;
    o->u_range_it.stop = stop;
    o->u_range_it.step = step;
    return o;
}

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py_obj_t py_obj_new_tuple_iterator(py_obj_base_t *tuple, int cur) {
    py_obj_base_t *o = m_new(py_obj_base_t, 1);
    o->kind = O_TUPLE_IT;
    o->u_tuple_list_it.obj = tuple;
    o->u_tuple_list_it.cur = cur;
    return o;
}

py_obj_t py_obj_new_list_iterator(py_obj_base_t *list, int cur) {
    py_obj_base_t *o = m_new(py_obj_base_t, 1);
    o->kind = O_LIST_IT;
    o->u_tuple_list_it.obj = list;
    o->u_tuple_list_it.cur = cur;
    return o;
}

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py_obj_t py_obj_new_user(const py_user_info_t *info, machine_uint_t data1, machine_uint_t data2) {
    py_obj_base_t *o = m_new(py_obj_base_t, 1);
    o->kind = O_USER;
    // TODO should probably parse the info to turn strings to qstr's, and wrap functions in O_FUN_N objects
    // that'll take up some memory.  maybe we can lazily do the O_FUN_N: leave it a ptr to a C function, and
    // only when the method is looked-up do we change that to the O_FUN_N object.
    o->u_user.info = info;
    o->u_user.data1 = data1;
    o->u_user.data2 = data2;
    return o;
}

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const char *py_obj_get_type_str(py_obj_t o_in) {
    if (IS_SMALL_INT(o_in)) {
        return "int";
    } else {
        py_obj_base_t *o = o_in;
        switch (o->kind) {
            case O_CONST:
                if (o == py_const_none) {
                    return "NoneType";
                } else {
                    return "bool";
                }
            case O_STR:
                return "str";
#if MICROPY_ENABLE_FLOAT
            case O_FLOAT:
                return "float";
#endif
            case O_FUN_0:
            case O_FUN_1:
            case O_FUN_2:
            case O_FUN_N:
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            case O_FUN_VAR:
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            case O_FUN_BC:
                return "function";
            case O_GEN_INSTANCE:
                return "generator";
            case O_TUPLE:
                return "tuple";
            case O_LIST:
                return "list";
            case O_TUPLE_IT:
                return "tuple_iterator";
            case O_LIST_IT:
                return "list_iterator";
            case O_SET:
                return "set";
            case O_MAP:
                return "dict";
            case O_OBJ:
            {
                py_map_elem_t *qn = py_qstr_map_lookup(o->u_obj.class->u_class.locals, qstr_from_str_static("__qualname__"), false);
                assert(qn != NULL);
                assert(IS_O(qn->value, O_STR));
                return qstr_str(((py_obj_base_t*)qn->value)->u_str);
            }
            case O_USER:
                return o->u_user.info->type_name;
            default:
                assert(0);
                return "UnknownType";
        }
    }
}

int rt_is_true(py_obj_t arg) {
    DEBUG_OP_printf("is true %p\n", arg);
    if (IS_SMALL_INT(arg)) {
        if (FROM_SMALL_INT(arg) == 0) {
            return 0;
        } else {
            return 1;
        }
    } else if (arg == py_const_none) {
        return 0;
    } else if (arg == py_const_false) {
        return 0;
    } else if (arg == py_const_true) {
        return 1;
    } else {
        assert(0);
        return 0;
    }
}

machine_int_t py_obj_get_int(py_obj_t arg) {
    if (arg == py_const_false) {
        return 0;
    } else if (arg == py_const_true) {
        return 1;
    } else if (IS_SMALL_INT(arg)) {
        return FROM_SMALL_INT(arg);
    } else {
        assert(0);
        return 0;
    }
}

#if MICROPY_ENABLE_FLOAT
machine_float_t py_obj_get_float(py_obj_t arg) {
    if (arg == py_const_false) {
        return 0;
    } else if (arg == py_const_true) {
        return 1;
    } else if (IS_SMALL_INT(arg)) {
        return FROM_SMALL_INT(arg);
    } else if (IS_O(arg, O_FLOAT)) {
        return ((py_obj_base_t*)arg)->u_float;
    } else {
        assert(0);
        return 0;
    }
}

void py_obj_get_complex(py_obj_t arg, py_float_t *real, py_float_t *imag) {
    if (arg == py_const_false) {
        *real = 0;
        *imag = 0;
    } else if (arg == py_const_true) {
        *real = 1;
        *imag = 0;
    } else if (IS_SMALL_INT(arg)) {
        *real = FROM_SMALL_INT(arg);
        *imag = 0;
    } else if (IS_O(arg, O_FLOAT)) {
        *real = ((py_obj_base_t*)arg)->u_float;
        *imag = 0;
    } else if (IS_O(arg, O_COMPLEX)) {
        *real = ((py_obj_base_t*)arg)->u_complex.real;
        *imag = ((py_obj_base_t*)arg)->u_complex.imag;
    } else {
        assert(0);
        *real = 0;
        *imag = 0;
    }
}
#endif

qstr py_obj_get_qstr(py_obj_t arg) {
    if (IS_O(arg, O_STR)) {
        return ((py_obj_base_t*)arg)->u_str;
    } else {
        assert(0);
        return 0;
    }
}

py_obj_t *py_obj_get_array_fixed_n(py_obj_t o_in, machine_int_t n) {
    if (IS_O(o_in, O_TUPLE) || IS_O(o_in, O_LIST)) {
        py_obj_base_t *o = o_in;
        if (o->u_tuple_list.len != n) {
            nlr_jump(py_obj_new_exception_2(q_IndexError, "requested length %d but object has length %d", (void*)n, (void*)o->u_tuple_list.len));
        }
        return o->u_tuple_list.items;
    } else {
        nlr_jump(py_obj_new_exception_2(q_TypeError, "object '%s' is not a tuple or list", py_obj_get_type_str(o_in), NULL));
    }
}

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void py_user_get_data(py_obj_t o, machine_uint_t *data1, machine_uint_t *data2) {
    assert(IS_O(o, O_USER));
    if (data1 != NULL) {
        *data1 = ((py_obj_base_t*)o)->u_user.data1;
    }
    if (data2 != NULL) {
        *data2 = ((py_obj_base_t*)o)->u_user.data2;
    }
}

void py_user_set_data(py_obj_t o, machine_uint_t data1, machine_uint_t data2) {
    assert(IS_O(o, O_USER));
    ((py_obj_base_t*)o)->u_user.data1 = data1;
    ((py_obj_base_t*)o)->u_user.data2 = data2;
}

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void printf_wrapper(void *env, const char *fmt, ...) {
    va_list args;
    va_start(args, fmt);
    vprintf(fmt, args);
    va_end(args);
}

void vstr_printf_wrapper(void *env, const char *fmt, ...) {
    va_list args;
    va_start(args, fmt);
    vstr_vprintf(env, fmt, args);
    va_end(args);
}

void py_obj_print_helper(void (*print)(void *env, const char *fmt, ...), void *env, py_obj_t o_in) {
    if (IS_SMALL_INT(o_in)) {
        print(env, "%d", (int)FROM_SMALL_INT(o_in));
    } else {
        py_obj_base_t *o = o_in;
        switch (o->kind) {
            case O_CONST:
                print(env, "%s", o->id);
                break;
            case O_STR:
                // TODO need to escape chars etc
                print(env, "'%s'", qstr_str(o->u_str));
                break;
#if MICROPY_ENABLE_FLOAT
            case O_FLOAT:
                print(env, "%.8g", o->u_float);
                break;
            case O_COMPLEX:
                if (o->u_complex.real == 0) {
                    print(env, "%.8gj", o->u_complex.imag);
                } else {
                    print(env, "(%.8g+%.8gj)", o->u_complex.real, o->u_complex.imag);
                }
                break;
#endif
            case O_EXCEPTION_0:
                print(env, "%s", qstr_str(o->u_exc0.id));
                break;
            case O_EXCEPTION_N:
                print(env, "%s: ", qstr_str(o->u_exc_n.id));
                print(env, o->u_exc_n.args[0], o->u_exc_n.args[1], o->u_exc_n.args[2]);
                break;
            case O_GEN_INSTANCE:
                print(env, "<generator object 'fun-name' at %p>", o);
                break;
            case O_TUPLE:
                print(env, "(");
                for (int i = 0; i < o->u_tuple_list.len; i++) {
                    if (i > 0) {
                        print(env, ", ");
                    }
                    py_obj_print_helper(print, env, o->u_tuple_list.items[i]);
                }
                if (o->u_tuple_list.len == 1) {
                    print(env, ",");
                }
                print(env, ")");
                break;
            case O_LIST:
                print(env, "[");
                for (int i = 0; i < o->u_tuple_list.len; i++) {
                    if (i > 0) {
                        print(env, ", ");
                    }
                    py_obj_print_helper(print, env, o->u_tuple_list.items[i]);
                }
                print(env, "]");
                break;
            case O_SET:
            {
                bool first = true;
                print(env, "{");
                for (int i = 0; i < o->u_set.alloc; i++) {
                    if (o->u_set.table[i] != NULL) {
                        if (!first) {
                            print(env, ", ");
                        }
                        first = false;
                        py_obj_print_helper(print, env, o->u_set.table[i]);
                    }
                }
                print(env, "}");
                break;
            }
            case O_MAP:
            {
                bool first = true;
                print(env, "{");
                for (int i = 0; i < o->u_map.alloc; i++) {
                    if (o->u_map.table[i].key != NULL) {
                        if (!first) {
                            print(env, ", ");
                        }
                        first = false;
                        py_obj_print_helper(print, env, o->u_map.table[i].key);
                        print(env, ": ");
                        py_obj_print_helper(print, env, o->u_map.table[i].value);
                    }
                }
                print(env, "}");
                break;
            }
            case O_USER:
                o->u_user.info->print(o_in);
                break;
            default:
                print(env, "<? %d>", o->kind);
                assert(0);
        }
    }
}

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py_obj_t rt_str_join(py_obj_t self_in, py_obj_t arg) {
    assert(IS_O(self_in, O_STR));
    py_obj_base_t *self = self_in;
    int required_len = strlen(qstr_str(self->u_str));

    // process arg, count required chars
    if (!IS_O(arg, O_TUPLE) && !IS_O(arg, O_LIST)) {
        goto bad_arg;
    }
    py_obj_base_t *tuple_list = arg;
    for (int i = 0; i < tuple_list->u_tuple_list.len; i++) {
        if (!IS_O(tuple_list->u_tuple_list.items[i], O_STR)) {
            goto bad_arg;
        }
        required_len += strlen(qstr_str(((py_obj_base_t*)tuple_list->u_tuple_list.items[i])->u_str));
    }

    // make joined string
    char *joined_str = m_new(char, required_len + 1);
    joined_str[0] = 0;
    for (int i = 0; i < tuple_list->u_tuple_list.len; i++) {
        const char *s2 = qstr_str(((py_obj_base_t*)tuple_list->u_tuple_list.items[i])->u_str);
        if (i > 0) {
            strcat(joined_str, qstr_str(self->u_str));
        }
        strcat(joined_str, s2);
    }
    return py_obj_new_str(qstr_from_str_take(joined_str));

bad_arg:
    nlr_jump(py_obj_new_exception_2(q_TypeError, "?str.join expecting a list of str's", NULL, NULL));
}

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py_obj_t rt_str_format(int n_args, const py_obj_t* args) {
    assert(IS_O(args[0], O_STR));
    py_obj_base_t *self = args[0];

    const char *str = qstr_str(self->u_str);
    int arg_i = 1;
    vstr_t *vstr = vstr_new();
    for (; *str; str++) {
        if (*str == '{') {
            str++;
            if (*str == '{') {
                vstr_add_char(vstr, '{');
            } else if (*str == '}') {
                if (arg_i >= n_args) {
                    nlr_jump(py_obj_new_exception_2(q_IndexError, "tuple index out of range", NULL, NULL));
                }
                py_obj_print_helper(vstr_printf_wrapper, vstr, args[arg_i]);
                arg_i++;
            }
        } else {
            vstr_add_char(vstr, *str);
        }
    }

    return py_obj_new_str(qstr_from_str_take(vstr->buf));
}

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uint get_index(py_obj_base_t *base, py_obj_t index) {
    // assumes base is O_TUPLE or O_LIST
    // TODO False and True are considered 0 and 1 for indexing purposes
    int len = base->u_tuple_list.len;
    if (IS_SMALL_INT(index)) {
        int i = FROM_SMALL_INT(index);
        if (i < 0) {
            i += len;
        }
        if (i < 0 || i >= len) {
            nlr_jump(py_obj_new_exception_2(q_IndexError, "%s index out of range", py_obj_get_type_str(base), NULL));
        }
        return i;
    } else {
        nlr_jump(py_obj_new_exception_2(q_TypeError, "%s indices must be integers, not %s", py_obj_get_type_str(base), py_obj_get_type_str(index)));
    }
}

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py_obj_t rt_list_append(py_obj_t self_in, py_obj_t arg) {
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    assert(IS_O(self_in, O_LIST));
    py_obj_base_t *self = self_in;
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    if (self->u_tuple_list.len >= self->u_tuple_list.alloc) {
        self->u_tuple_list.alloc *= 2;
        self->u_tuple_list.items = m_renew(py_obj_t, self->u_tuple_list.items, self->u_tuple_list.alloc);
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    }
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    self->u_tuple_list.items[self->u_tuple_list.len++] = arg;
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    return py_const_none; // return None, as per CPython
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}

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py_obj_t rt_list_pop(py_obj_t self_in, py_obj_t arg) {
    assert(IS_O(self_in, O_LIST));
    py_obj_base_t *self = self_in;
    uint index = get_index(self, arg);
    py_obj_t ret = self->u_tuple_list.items[index];
    self->u_tuple_list.len -= 1;
    memcpy(self->u_tuple_list.items + index, self->u_tuple_list.items + index + 1, (self->u_tuple_list.len - index) * sizeof(py_obj_t));
    return ret;
}

// TODO make this conform to CPython's definition of sort
static void py_quicksort(py_obj_t *head, py_obj_t *tail, py_obj_t key_fn) {
    while (head < tail) {
        py_obj_t *h = head - 1;
        py_obj_t *t = tail;
        py_obj_t v = rt_call_function_1(key_fn, tail[0]); // get pivot using key_fn
        for (;;) {
            do ++h; while (rt_compare_op(RT_COMPARE_OP_LESS, rt_call_function_1(key_fn, h[0]), v) == py_const_true);
            do --t; while (h < t && rt_compare_op(RT_COMPARE_OP_LESS, v, rt_call_function_1(key_fn, t[0])) == py_const_true);
            if (h >= t) break;
            py_obj_t x = h[0];
            h[0] = t[0];
            t[0] = x;
        }
        py_obj_t x = h[0];
        h[0] = tail[0];
        tail[0] = x;
        py_quicksort(head, t, key_fn);
        head = h + 1;
    }
}

py_obj_t rt_list_sort(py_obj_t self_in, py_obj_t key_fn) {
    assert(IS_O(self_in, O_LIST));
    py_obj_base_t *self = self_in;
    if (self->u_tuple_list.len > 1) {
        py_quicksort(self->u_tuple_list.items, self->u_tuple_list.items + self->u_tuple_list.len - 1, key_fn);
    }
    return py_const_none; // return None, as per CPython
}

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py_obj_t rt_gen_instance_next(py_obj_t self_in) {
    py_obj_t ret = rt_iternext(self_in);
    if (ret == py_const_stop_iteration) {
        nlr_jump(py_obj_new_exception_0(qstr_from_str_static("StopIteration")));
    } else {
        return ret;
    }
}

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typedef enum {
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    PY_CODE_NONE,
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    PY_CODE_BYTE,
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    PY_CODE_NATIVE,
    PY_CODE_INLINE_ASM,
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} py_code_kind_t;

typedef struct _py_code_t {
    py_code_kind_t kind;
    int n_args;
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    int n_locals;
    int n_stack;
    bool is_generator;
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    union {
        struct {
            byte *code;
            uint len;
        } u_byte;
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        struct {
            py_fun_t fun;
        } u_native;
        struct {
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            void *fun;
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        } u_inline_asm;
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    };
} py_code_t;

static int next_unique_code_id;
static py_code_t *unique_codes;

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py_obj_t fun_str_join;
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py_obj_t fun_str_format;
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py_obj_t fun_list_append;
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py_obj_t fun_list_pop;
py_obj_t fun_list_sort;
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py_obj_t fun_gen_instance_next;
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py_obj_t py_builtin___repl_print__(py_obj_t o) {
    if (o != py_const_none) {
        py_obj_print(o);
        printf("\n");
    }
    return py_const_none;
}

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py_obj_t py_builtin_print(int n_args, const py_obj_t* args) {
    for (int i = 0; i < n_args; i++) {
        if (i > 0) {
            printf(" ");
        }
        if (IS_O(args[i], O_STR)) {
            // special case, print string raw
            printf("%s", qstr_str(((py_obj_base_t*)args[i])->u_str));
        } else {
            // print the object Python style
            py_obj_print(args[i]);
        }
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    }
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    printf("\n");
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    return py_const_none;
}

py_obj_t py_builtin_len(py_obj_t o_in) {
    py_small_int_t len = 0;
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    if (IS_O(o_in, O_STR)) {
        py_obj_base_t *o = o_in;
        len = strlen(qstr_str(o->u_str));
    } else if (IS_O(o_in, O_TUPLE) || IS_O(o_in, O_LIST)) {
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        py_obj_base_t *o = o_in;
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        len = o->u_tuple_list.len;
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    } else if (IS_O(o_in, O_MAP)) {
        py_obj_base_t *o = o_in;
        len = o->u_map.used;
    } else {
        assert(0);
    }
    return TO_SMALL_INT(len);
}

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py_obj_t py_builtin_abs(py_obj_t o_in) {
    if (IS_SMALL_INT(o_in)) {
        py_small_int_t val = FROM_SMALL_INT(o_in);
        if (val < 0) {
            val = -val;
        }
        return TO_SMALL_INT(val);
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#if MICROPY_ENABLE_FLOAT
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    } else if (IS_O(o_in, O_FLOAT)) {
        py_obj_base_t *o = o_in;
        // TODO check for NaN etc
        if (o->u_float < 0) {
            return py_obj_new_float(-o->u_float);
        } else {
            return o_in;
        }
    } else if (IS_O(o_in, O_COMPLEX)) {
        py_obj_base_t *o = o_in;
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        return py_obj_new_float(machine_sqrt(o->u_complex.real*o->u_complex.real + o->u_complex.imag*o->u_complex.imag));
#endif
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    } else {
        assert(0);
        return py_const_none;
    }
}

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py_obj_t py_builtin___build_class__(py_obj_t o_class_fun, py_obj_t o_class_name) {
    // we differ from CPython: we set the new __locals__ object here
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    map_locals = class_locals;
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    // call the class code
    rt_call_function_1(o_class_fun, (py_obj_t)0xdeadbeef);

    // restore old __locals__ object
    map_locals = old_locals;

    // create and return the new class
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    py_obj_base_t *o = m_new(py_obj_base_t, 1);
    o->kind = O_CLASS;
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    o->u_class.locals = class_locals;
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    return o;
}

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py_obj_t py_builtin_range(int n_args, const py_obj_t* args) {
    switch (n_args) {
        case 1: return py_obj_new_range(0, py_obj_get_int(args[0]), 1);
        case 2: return py_obj_new_range(py_obj_get_int(args[0]), py_obj_get_int(args[1]), 1);
        case 3: return py_obj_new_range(py_obj_get_int(args[0]), py_obj_get_int(args[1]), py_obj_get_int(args[2]));
        default: nlr_jump(py_obj_new_exception_2(q_TypeError, "range expected at most 3 arguments, got %d", (void*)(machine_int_t)n_args, NULL));
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