ogParser.py 142 KB
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#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-


"""
    OpenGEODE SDL92 parser

    This library builds the SDL AST (described in ogAST.py)
    The AST can then be used to build SDL backends such as the
    diagram editor (placing symbols in a graphical canvas for editition)
    or code generators, etc.

    The AST build is based on the ANTLR-grammar and generated lexer and parser
    (the grammar is in the file sdl92.g and requires antlr 3.1.3 for Python
    to be compiled and used).

    During the build of the AST this library makes a number of semantic
    checks on the SDL input mode.

    Copyright (c) 2012-2013 European Space Agency

    Designed and implemented by Maxime Perrotin

    Contact: maxime.perrotin@esa.int
"""

__author__ = 'Maxime Perrotin'

import sys
import os
import logging
import traceback
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from itertools import chain, permutations
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import antlr3
import antlr3.tree

import sdl92Lexer as lexer
from sdl92Parser import sdl92Parser

import samnmax
import ogAST
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from Asn1scc import parse_asn1, ASN1
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LOG = logging.getLogger(__name__)

OPKIND = {lexer.PLUS: ogAST.ExprPlus,
          lexer.ASTERISK: ogAST.ExprMul,
          lexer.IMPLIES: ogAST.ExprImplies,
          lexer.DASH: ogAST.ExprMinus,
          lexer.OR: ogAST.ExprOr,
          lexer.AND: ogAST.ExprAnd,
          lexer.XOR: ogAST.ExprXor,
          lexer.EQ: ogAST.ExprEq,
          lexer.NEQ: ogAST.ExprNeq,
          lexer.GT: ogAST.ExprGt,
          lexer.GE: ogAST.ExprGe,
          lexer.LT: ogAST.ExprLt,
          lexer.LE: ogAST.ExprLe,
          lexer.DIV: ogAST.ExprDiv,
          lexer.MOD: ogAST.ExprMod,
          lexer.APPEND: ogAST.ExprAppend,
          lexer.IN: ogAST.ExprIn,
          lexer.REM: ogAST.ExprRem,
          lexer.PRIMARY: ogAST.Primary}

# Insert current path in the search list for importing modules
sys.path.insert(0, '.')

DV = None

# Code generator backends may need some intemediate variables to process
# expressions. For convenience and to avoid multiple pass parsing, the parser
# tries to guess where they may be useful, and adds a hint in the AST.
TMPVAR = 0

# ASN.1 types used to support the signature of special operators
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INTEGER = type('IntegerType', (object,), {'kind': 'IntegerType',
                                          'Min': str(-(2 ** 63)),
                                          'Max': str(2 ** 63 - 1)})
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INT32 = type('Integer32Type', (object,), {'kind': 'Integer32Type',
                                          'Min':'-2147483648',
                                          'Max':'2147483647'})
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NUMERICAL = type('NumericalType', (object,), {'kind': 'Numerical'})
TIMER = type('TimerType', (object,), {'kind': 'TimerType'})
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REAL = type('RealType', (object,), {'kind': 'RealType',
                                    'Min': str(1e-308),
                                    'Max': str(1e308)})
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LIST = type('ListType', (object,), {'kind': 'ListType'})
ANY_TYPE = type('AnyType', (object,), {'kind': 'AnyType'})
CHOICE = type('ChoiceType', (object,), {'kind': 'ChoiceType'})
BOOLEAN = type('BooleanType', (object,), {'kind': 'BooleanType'})
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RAWSTRING = type('RawString', (object,), {'kind': 'StandardStringType'})
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OCTETSTRING = type('OctetString', (object,), {'kind': 'OctetStringType'})
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UNKNOWN_TYPE = type('UnknownType', (object,), {'kind': 'UnknownType'})


# Special SDL operators and signature
SPECIAL_OPERATORS = {'length': [LIST],
                     'write': [ANY_TYPE],
                     'writeln': [ANY_TYPE],
                     'present': [CHOICE],
                     'set_timer': [INTEGER, TIMER],
                     'reset_timer': [TIMER],
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                     'abs': [NUMERICAL],
                     'float': [NUMERICAL],
                     'fix': [NUMERICAL],
                     'power': [NUMERICAL, INTEGER]}
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# Container to keep a list of types mapped from ANTLR Tokens
# (Used with singledispatch/visitor pattern)
ANTLR_TOKEN_TYPES = {a: type(a, (antlr3.tree.CommonTree,), {})
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                    for a, b in lexer.__dict__.viewitems() if type(b) == int}
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# Shortcut to create a new referenced ASN.1 type
new_ref_type = lambda refname: \
        type(str(refname), (object,),
                {'kind': 'ReferenceType',
                 'ReferencedTypeName': refname.replace('_', '-')})

# Shortcut to return a type name (Reference name or basic type)
type_name = lambda t: \
                t.kind if t.kind != 'ReferenceType' else t.ReferencedTypeName

types = lambda: getattr(DV, 'types', {})


def sdl_to_asn1(sort):
    '''
        Convert case insensitive type reference to the actual type as found
        in the ASN.1 datamodel
    '''
    for asn1_type in types().viewkeys():
        if sort.replace('_', '-').lower() == asn1_type.lower():
            break
    else:
        raise TypeError('Type {} not found in ASN.1 model'.format(sort))
    return new_ref_type(asn1_type)


def node_filename(node):
    ''' Return the filename associated to the stream of this node '''
    parent = node
    while parent:
        try:
            return parent.getToken().getInputStream().fileName
        except AttributeError:
            parent = parent.getParent()
    return None


def token_stream(node):
    '''
        Return the token stream associated to a tree node
        It is set at the root of the tree by the parser
    '''
    parent = node
    while parent:
        try:
            return parent.token_stream
        except AttributeError:
            parent = parent.getParent()


def signals_in_system(ast):
    ''' Recursively find signal definitions in a nested SDL model '''
    all_signals = []
    for block in ast.blocks:
        all_signals.extend(signals_in_system(block))
    all_signals.extend(ast.signals)
    return all_signals


def find_process_declaration(ast, process_name):
    ''' Recursively search for a process declaration in a nested SDL model '''
    for block in ast.blocks:
        result = find_process_declaration(block, process_name)
        if result:
            return result
    try:
        for process in ast.processes:
            if process.processName == process_name:
                return process
    except AttributeError:
        return None
    return None


def valid_output(scope):
    '''
        Yields the output, procedures, and operators names,
        that is all the elements that can be valid in an OUTPUT symbol
        (does not mean it IS valid - caller still has to check it)
    '''
    for out_sig in scope.output_signals:
        yield out_sig['name'].lower()
    for proc in scope.procedures:
        yield proc.inputString.lower()
    for special_op in SPECIAL_OPERATORS:
        yield special_op.lower()


def get_interfaces(ast, process_name):
    '''
        Search for the list of input and output signals (async PI/RI)
        and procedures (sync RI) of a process in a given top-level AST
    '''
    all_signals = []
    async_signals = []
    system = None

    # Move up to the system level, in case process is nested in a block
    # and not defined at root level as it is the case when it is referenced
    system = ast
    while hasattr(system, 'parent'):
        system = system.parent

    # If we are at AST level, check in all systems, otherwise in current one
    iterator = ast.systems if hasattr(ast, 'systems') else (system,)

    for system in iterator:
        all_signals.extend(signals_in_system(system))
        process_ref = find_process_declaration(system, process_name)
        if process_ref:
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            # Go to the block where the process is defined
            process_parent = process_ref.parent
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            break
    else:
        if isinstance(ast, ogAST.Block):
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            process_parent = ast
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        else:
            raise TypeError('Process ' + process_name +
                        ' is defined but not not declared in a system')
    # Find in and out signals names using the signalroutes
    for signalroute in process_parent.signalroutes:
        for route in signalroute['routes']:
            if route['source'] == process_name:
                direction = 'out'
            elif route['dest'] == process_name:
                direction = 'in'
            else:
                continue
            for sig_id in route['signals']:
                # Copy the signal to the result dict
                found, = [dict(sig) for sig in all_signals
                          if sig['name'] == sig_id]
                found['direction'] = direction
                async_signals.append(found)
    return async_signals, system.procedures


def get_input_string(root):
    ''' Return the input string of a tree node '''
    return token_stream(root).toString(root.getTokenStartIndex(),
            root.getTokenStopIndex())


def get_state_list(process_root):
    ''' Return the list of states of a process '''
    # 1) get all STATE statements
    states = (child for child in process_root.getChildren()
            if child.type == lexer.STATE)
    # 2) keep only the ones containing a STATELIST token (i.e. no ASTERISK)
    relevant = (child for state in states for child in state.getChildren()
            if child.type == lexer.STATELIST)
    # 3) extract the state list from each of them
    state_list = [s.text.lower() for r in relevant for s in r.getChildren()]
    # state_list.append('START')
    # 4) create a set to remove duplicates
    return set(state_list)


def find_basic_type(a_type):
    ''' Return the ASN.1 basic type of a_type '''
    basic_type = a_type or UNKNOWN_TYPE
    while basic_type.kind == 'ReferenceType':
        # Find type with proper case in the data view
        for typename in types().viewkeys():
            if typename.lower() == basic_type.ReferencedTypeName.lower():
                basic_type = types()[typename].type
                break
        else:
            raise TypeError('Type "' + type_name(basic_type) +
                            '" was not found in Dataview')
    return basic_type


def is_constant(var):
    ''' Check in ASN.1 modules if var (Primary) is declared as a constant '''
    if var is None:
        return False
    if isinstance(var, ogAST.PrimConstant):
        return True
    if DV and isinstance(var, ogAST.PrimPath):
        for mod in DV.asn1Modules:
            for constant in DV.exportedVariables[mod]:
                if(constant.lower() == var.value[0].lower().replace('_', '-')):
                    LOG.debug('Constant ' + var.inputString + ' found')
                    return True
    return False


def fix_special_operators(op_name, expr_list, context):
    ''' Verify/fix type of special operators parameters '''
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    if op_name.lower() in ('length', 'present', 'abs', 'float', 'fix'):
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        if len(expr_list) != 1:
            raise AttributeError('Only one parameter for the {} operator'
                                 .format(op_name))
        expr = expr_list[0]
        if expr.exprType is UNKNOWN_TYPE:
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            expr.exprType = find_variable(expr.value[0], context)
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            # XXX should change type to PrimVariable
        basic = find_basic_type(expr.exprType)
        if op_name.lower() == 'length' and basic.kind != 'SequenceOfType' \
                                 and not basic.kind.endswith('StringType'):
            raise TypeError('Length operator works only on strings/lists')
        elif op_name.lower() == 'present' and basic.kind != 'ChoiceType':
            raise TypeError('Present operator works only on CHOICE types')
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        elif op_name.lower() in ('abs', 'float', 'fix') and not basic.kind in (
                'IntegerType', 'Integer32Type', 'RealType', 'NumericalType'):
            raise TypeError('"{}" operator needs a numerical parameter'.format(
                op_name))
    elif op_name.lower() == 'power':
        if len(expr_list) != 2:
            raise AttributeError('The "power" operator takes two parameters')
        types = {}
        for idx, expr in enumerate(expr_list):
            if expr.exprType is UNKNOWN_TYPE:
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                expr.exprType = find_variable(expr.value[0], context)
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                # XXX should change type to PrimVariable
            if idx == 0 and not find_basic_type(expr.exprType).kind in (
                    'IntegerType', 'Integer32Type', 'Numerical', 'RealType'):
                raise TypeError('First parameter of power must be numerical')
            elif idx == 1 and not find_basic_type(expr.exprType).kind in (
                    'IntegerType', 'Integer32Type'):
                raise TypeError('Second parameter of power must be integer')
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    elif op_name.lower() in ('write', 'writeln'):
        for param in expr_list:
            if param.exprType is UNKNOWN_TYPE:
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                for each in (INTEGER, REAL, BOOLEAN, RAWSTRING, OCTETSTRING):
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                    try:
                        check_type_compatibility(param, each, context)
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                        if each is OCTETSTRING and isinstance(param,
                                                         ogAST.PrimIfThenElse):
                            param.exprType = param.value['then'].exprType
                        else:
                            param.exprType = each
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                        break
                    except TypeError:
                        continue
                else:
                    # Type not found among supported types
                    # Has to be a variable...otherwise, error!
                    try:
                        param.exprType = find_variable(param.value[0], context)
                    except KeyError, AttributeError:
                        raise TypeError('Could not determine type of argument'
                                        ' "{}"'.format(param.inputString))
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            basic = find_basic_type(param.exprType)
            if basic.kind not in ('IntegerType', 'Integer32Type',
                                  'RealType', 'BooleanType') \
                                and not basic.kind.endswith('StringType'):
                # Currently supported printable types
                raise TypeError('Write operator does not support type')
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    elif op_name.lower() == 'set_timer':
        if len(expr_list) != 2:
            raise TypeError('SET_TIMER has 2 parameters: (int, timer_name)')
        basic = find_basic_type(expr_list[0].exprType)
        if not basic.kind.startswith('Integer'):
            raise TypeError('SET_TIMER first parameter is not an integer')
        timer = expr_list[1].inputString
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        for each in chain(context.timers, context.global_timers):
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            if each.lower() == timer.lower():
                break
        else:
            raise TypeError('Timer {} is not defined'.format(timer))
    elif op_name.lower == 'reset_timer':
        if len(expr_list) != 1:
            raise TypeError('RESET_TIMER has 1 parameter: timer_name')
        timer = expr_list[0].inputString
        for each in context.timers:
            if each.lower() == timer.lower():
                break
        else:
            raise TypeError('Timer {} is not defined'.format(timer))
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    else:
        # TODO: other operators
        return


def check_and_fix_op_params(op_name, expr_list, context):
    '''
        Verify and/or set the type of a procedure/output parameters
        TODO: when supported, add operators
    '''
    # (1) Find the signature of the function
    # signature will hold the list of parameters for the function
    LOG.debug('[check_and_fix_op_params] ' + op_name + ' - ' + str(expr_list))
    signature = []
    key = ''

    for out_sig in context.output_signals:
        if out_sig['name'].lower() == op_name.lower():
            if out_sig.get('type'):
                # output signals: one single parameter
                signature = [{'type': out_sig.get('type'),
                              'name': out_sig.get('param_name' or ''),
                              'direction': 'in'}]
            break
    else:
        # Procedures (inner and external)
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        for inner_proc in context.procedures:
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            key = inner_proc.inputString
            if key.lower() == op_name.lower():
                signature = inner_proc.fpar
                break
        else:
            if op_name.lower() not in SPECIAL_OPERATORS:
                raise AttributeError('Operator/output/procedure not found: '
                    + op_name)
            else:
                # Special operators: parameters are context dependent
                fix_special_operators(op_name, expr_list, context)
                return
    # (2) Check that the number of given parameters matches the signature
    if signature is not None and len(signature) != len(expr_list):
        raise TypeError('Wrong number of parameters')
    # (3) Check each individual parameter type
    for idx, param in enumerate(expr_list):
        if signature is None:
            break
        # Get parameter type name from the function signature:
        param_type = type_name(signature[idx].get('type'))
        # Retrieve the type (or None if it is a sepecial operator)
        dataview_entry = types().get(param_type) or UNKNOWN_TYPE
        if dataview_entry is not UNKNOWN_TYPE:
            dataview_type = new_ref_type(param_type)
        else:
            dataview_type = UNKNOWN_TYPE

        expr = ogAST.ExprAssign()
        expr.left = ogAST.PrimPath()
        expr.left.exprType = dataview_type
        expr.right = param
        fix_expression_types(expr, context)
        expr_list[idx] = expr.right
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        if signature[idx].get('direction') != 'in' \
                and not isinstance(expr.right, ogAST.PrimVariable):
            raise TypeError('OUT parameter "{}" is not a variable'
                            .format(expr.right.inputString))
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def check_range(typeref, type_to_check):
    ''' Verify the that the Min/Max bounds of two types are compatible
        Called to test that assignments are withing allowed range
        both types assumed to be basic types 
    '''
    try:
        if float(type_to_check.Min) < float(typeref.Min) \
                or float(type_to_check.Max) > float(typeref.Max):
            raise TypeError('Expression evaluation in range [{}..{}], '
                            'outside expected range [{}..{}]'
                    .format(type_to_check.Min, type_to_check.Max,
                            typeref.Min, typeref.Max))
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    except (AttributeError, ValueError):
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        raise TypeError('Missing range')


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def check_type_compatibility(primary, typeRef, context):
    '''
        Check if an ogAST.Primary (raw value, enumerated, ASN.1 Value...)
        is compatible with a given type (typeRef is an ASN1Scc type)
        Does not return anything if OK, otherwise raises TypeError
    '''
    assert typeRef is not None
    if typeRef is UNKNOWN_TYPE:
        raise TypeError('Type reference is unknown')
    if isinstance(primary, ogAST.PrimConstant):
        # ASN.1 constants type is unknown (Asn1 backend to be completed)
        return
    actual_type = find_basic_type(typeRef)
    LOG.debug("[check_type_compatibility] "
              "checking if {value} is of type {typeref}: "
              .format(value=primary.inputString, typeref=type_name(typeRef)))

    if (isinstance(primary, ogAST.PrimEnumeratedValue)
            and actual_type.kind.endswith('EnumeratedType')):
        # If type ref is an enumeration, check that the value is valid
        # Note, when using the "present" operator of a CHOICE type, the
        # resulting value is actually an EnumeratedType
        enumerant = primary.inputString.replace('_', '-')
        corr_type = actual_type.EnumValues.get(enumerant)
        if corr_type:
            return
        else:
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            err = ('Value "' + primary.inputString +
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                   '" not in this enumeration: ' +
                   str(actual_type.EnumValues.keys()))
            raise TypeError(err)
    elif isinstance(primary, ogAST.PrimIfThenElse):
        # check that IF expr returns BOOL, and that Then and Else expressions
        # are compatible with actual_type
        if_expr = primary.value['if']
        then_expr = primary.value['then']
        else_expr = primary.value['else']
        if if_expr.exprType.kind != 'BooleanType':
            raise TypeError('IF expression does not return a boolean')
        else:
            for expr in (then_expr, else_expr):
                if expr.is_raw:
                    check_type_compatibility(expr, typeRef, context)
                # compare the types for semantic equivalence:
                else:
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                    if expr.exprType is UNKNOWN_TYPE:
                        # If it was not resolved before, it must be a variable
                        # this can happen in the context of a special operator
                        # (write), where at no point before where the type
                        # could be compared to another type
                        expr.exprType = find_variable(expr.value[0], context)
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                    compare_types(expr.exprType, typeRef)
        return
    elif isinstance(primary, ogAST.PrimVariable):
        try:
            compare_types(primary.exprType, typeRef)
        except TypeError as err:
            raise TypeError('{expr} should be of type {ty} - {err}'
                            .format(expr=primary.inputString,
                                    ty=type_name(typeRef),
                                    err=str(err)))
        return
    elif isinstance(primary, ogAST.PrimInteger) \
            and actual_type.kind.startswith('Integer'):
        return
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    elif isinstance(primary, ogAST.PrimReal) \
            and actual_type.kind.startswith('Real'):
        return
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    elif isinstance(primary, ogAST.PrimBoolean) \
            and actual_type.kind.startswith('Boolean'):
        return
    elif (isinstance(primary, ogAST.PrimEmptyString) and
                                         actual_type.kind == 'SequenceOfType'):
        if int(actual_type.Min) == 0:
            return
        else:
            raise TypeError('SEQUENCE OF has a minimum size of '
                            + actual_type.Min + ')')
    elif isinstance(primary, ogAST.PrimSequenceOf) \
            and actual_type.kind == 'SequenceOfType':
        if (len(primary.value) < int(actual_type.Min) or
                len(primary.value) > int(actual_type.Max)):
            raise TypeError(str(len(primary.value)) +
                      ' elements in SEQUENCE OF, while constraint is [' +
                      str(actual_type.Min) + '..' + str(actual_type.Max) + ']')
        for elem in primary.value:
            check_type_compatibility(elem, actual_type.type, context)
        return
    elif isinstance(primary, ogAST.PrimSequence) \
            and actual_type.kind == 'SequenceType':
        user_nb_elem = len(primary.value.keys())
        type_nb_elem = len(actual_type.Children.keys())
        if user_nb_elem != type_nb_elem:
            raise TypeError('Wrong number of fields in SEQUENCE of type {}'
                            .format(type_name(typeRef)))
        else:
            for field, fd_data in actual_type.Children.viewitems():
                ufield = field.replace('-', '_')
                if ufield not in primary.value:
                    raise TypeError('Missing field {field} in SEQUENCE'
                                    ' of type {t1} '
                                    .format(field=ufield,
                                            t1=type_name(typeRef)))
                else:
                    # If the user field is a raw value
                    if primary.value[ufield].is_raw:
                        check_type_compatibility(primary.value[ufield],
                                                 fd_data.type, context)
                    else:
                        # Compare the types for semantic equivalence
                        try:
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                            compare_types(
                                  primary.value[ufield].exprType, fd_data.type)
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                        except TypeError as err:
                            raise TypeError('Field ' + ufield +
                                        ' is not of the proper type, i.e. ' +
                                        type_name(fd_data.type) +
                                        ' - ' + str(err))
        return
    elif isinstance(primary, ogAST.PrimChoiceItem) \
                              and actual_type.kind.startswith('Choice'):
        for choicekey, choice in actual_type.Children.viewitems():
            if choicekey.lower() == primary.value['choice'].lower():
                break
        else:
            raise TypeError('Non-existent choice "{choice}" in type {t1}'
                            .format(choice=primary.value['choice'],
                            t1=type_name(typeRef)))
        # compare primary.value['value']
        # with actual_type['Children'][primary.choiceItem['choice']]
        value = primary.value['value']
        choice_field_type = choice.type
        # if the user field is a raw value:
        if value.is_raw:
            check_type_compatibility(value, choice_field_type, context)
        # Compare the types for semantic equivalence:
        else:
            try:
                compare_types(value.exprType, choice_field_type)
            except TypeError as err:
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                raise TypeError(
                            'Field {field} in CHOICE is not of type {t1} - {e}'
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                            .format(field=primary.value['choice'],
                                    t1=type_name(choice_field_type),
                                    e=str(err)))
        value.exprType = choice_field_type         # XXX
        return
    elif isinstance(primary, ogAST.PrimChoiceDeterminant) \
                                     and actual_type.kind.startswith('Choice'):
        for choicekey, choice in actual_type.EnumValues.viewitems():
            if choicekey.replace('-', '_').lower() == \
                                                   primary.inputString.lower():
                break
        else:
            raise TypeError('Non-existent choice "{choice}" in type {t1}'
                            .format(choice=primary.inputString,
                            t1=type_name(typeRef)))

    elif isinstance(primary, ogAST.PrimStringLiteral):
        # Octet strings
        basic_type = find_basic_type(typeRef)
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        if basic_type.kind == 'StandardStringType':
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            return
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        elif basic_type.kind.endswith('StringType'):
            if int(basic_type.Min) <= len(
                          primary.value[1:-1]) <= int(basic_type.Max):
                return
            else:
                raise TypeError('Invalid string literal - check that length is'
                                'within the bound limits {Min}..{Max}'.format
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                            (Min=str(basic_type.Min), Max=str(basic_type.Max)))
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        else:
            raise TypeError('String literal not expected')
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    elif (isinstance(primary, ogAST.PrimMantissaBaseExp) and
                                            actual_type.kind == 'RealType'):
        LOG.debug('PROBABLY (it is a float but I did not check'
                  'if values are compatible)')
        return
    else:
        raise TypeError('{prim} does not match type {t1}'
                        .format(prim=primary.inputString,
                                t1=type_name(typeRef)))

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def compare_types(type_a, type_b):
    '''
       Compare two types, return if they are semantically equivalent,
       otherwise raise TypeError
    '''
    LOG.debug('[compare_types]' + str(type_a) + ' and ' + str(type_b) + ': ')
    type_a = find_basic_type(type_a)
    type_b = find_basic_type(type_b)
    if type_a == type_b:
        return
    # Check if both types have basic compatibility
    simple_types = [elem for elem in (type_a, type_b) if elem.kind in
                       ('IntegerType', 'BooleanType', 'RealType', 'StringType',
                        'SequenceOfType', 'Integer32Type', 'OctetStringType')]
    if len(simple_types) < 2:
        # Either A or B is not a basic type - cannot be compatible
        raise TypeError('One of the types is not a basic type: '
                + type_name(type_a) + ' or ' + type_name(type_b))
    elif type_a.kind == type_b.kind:
        if type_a.kind == 'SequenceOfType':
            if type_a.Min == type_b.Min and type_a.Max == type_b.Max:
                compare_types(type_a.type, type_b.type)
                return
            else:
                raise TypeError('Incompatible arrays')
        return
    elif type_a.kind.endswith('StringType') and type_b.kind.endswith(
                                                                 'StringType'):
        # Allow Octet String values to be printable strings.. for convenience
        return
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    elif not(type_a.kind in ('IntegerType', 'Integer32Type') and
             type_b.kind in ('IntegerType', 'Integer32Type')):
        raise TypeError('One type is an integer, not the other one')
    elif any(side.kind == 'RealType' for side in (type_a, type_b)):
        raise TypeError('One type is an REAL, not the other one')
    elif all(side.kind.startswith('Integer') for side in (type_a, type_b)) \
            or all(side.kind == 'RealType' for side in (type_a, type_b)):
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        pass
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    else:
        return


def find_variable(var, context):
    ''' Look for a variable name in the context and return its type '''
    result = UNKNOWN_TYPE
    LOG.debug('[find_variable] checking if ' + str(var) + ' is defined')
    # all DCL-variables
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    all_visible_variables = dict(context.global_variables)
    all_visible_variables.update(context.variables)
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    # First check locally, i.e. in FPAR
    try:
        for variable in context.fpar:
            if variable['name'].lower() == var.lower():
                LOG.debug(str(var) + ' is defined')
                return variable['type']
    except AttributeError:
        # No FPAR section
        pass
    for varname, (vartype, _) in all_visible_variables.viewitems():
        # Case insensitive comparison with variables
        if var.lower() == varname.lower():
            result = vartype
            LOG.debug(str(var) + ' is defined')
            return result
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    for timer in chain(context.timers, context.global_timers):
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        if var.lower() == timer.lower():
            LOG.debug(str(var) + ' is defined')
            return result

    LOG.debug('[find_variable] result: not found, raising exception')
    raise AttributeError('Variable {var} not defined'.format(var=var))


def find_type(path, context):
    '''
        Determine the type of an element using the data model,
        and the list of variables, operators and procedures
        path must contain either an index or parameters, it is not possible
        with this function to find the type of a single variable, because
        it is context-dependent (the name of a variable may conflict with the
        name of a enumeration item or a choice determinant)
    '''
    result = UNKNOWN_TYPE
    assert len(path) > 1, str(path)
    if not DV:
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        raise AttributeError('Dataview is required to process types')
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    LOG.debug('[find_type] ' + str(path))
    # First, find the type of the main element
    main = path[0]
    v, o = None, None
    # Try to find the name in the variables list
    try:
        result = find_variable(main, context)
    except AttributeError:
        for o in context.operators.viewkeys():
            # Case insensitive comparison with operators
            if main.lower() == o.lower():
                result = new_ref_type(context.operators[o])
                break
        else:
            if main.lower() in SPECIAL_OPERATORS:
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                param = path[1].get('procParams') or []
                if not param:
                    raise TypeError('Missing parameter in {} operator call'
                                    .format(main))
                # Retrieve type of first parameter - all operators need it
                first_param = param[0]
                first_type = find_variable(first_param.inputString, context)\
                                 if first_param.exprType == UNKNOWN_TYPE else \
                                 first_param.exprType
                first_basic = find_basic_type(first_type)

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                # Special operators require type elaboration
                if main.lower() == 'present':
                    result = type('present', (object,),
                                   {'kind': 'ChoiceEnumeratedType',
                                   'EnumValues': {}})
                    # present(choiceType): must return an enum
                    # with elements being the choice options
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                    if len(param) != 1:
                        raise TypeError('Wrong number of parameters in '
                                        'PRESENT clause (only one expected)')
                    if first_basic.kind != 'ChoiceType':
                        raise TypeError('PRESENT parameter'
                                     ' must be a CHOICE type:' + str(path))
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                    else:
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                        result.EnumValues = first_basic.Children
                elif main.lower() in ('length', 'fix'):
                    if len(param) != 1:
                        raise TypeError('Wrong number of parameters in {} '
                                        'operator'.format(main))
                    # result is an integer type with range of the param type
                    result = type('fix', (INTEGER,), {'Min': first_basic.Min,
                                                      'Max': first_basic.Max})
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                elif main.lower() == 'float':
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                    if len(param) != 1:
                        raise TypeError('Wrong number of parameters in {} '
                                        'operator'.format(main))
                    result = type('float_op', (REAL,), {'Min': first_basic.Min,
                                                       'Max': first_basic.Max})
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                elif main.lower() == 'power':
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                    second = param[1]
                    second_type = find_variable(second.inputString, context)\
                                  if second.exprType == UNKNOWN_TYPE else \
                                  second.exprType
                    second_basic = find_basic_type(second_type)
                    try:
                        result = type('Power', (first_basic,),
                                {'Min':str(pow(float(first_basic.Min),
                                    float(second_basic.Min))),
                                 'Max':str(pow(float(first_basic.Max),
                                    float(second_basic.Max)))})
                    except OverflowError:
                        raise TypeError('Result can exceeds 64-bits')
                elif main.lower() == 'abs':
                    result = type('Abs', (first_basic,),
                            {'Min':str(max(float(first_basic.Min), 0)),
                             'Max':str(max(float(first_basic.Max), 0))})
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                else:  # write and writeln return void
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                    pass
    if result.kind == 'ReferenceType':
        # We have more than one element and the first one is of type 'result'
        # Iterate over the path to get the type of the last element
        for elem in path[1:]:
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            basic = find_basic_type(result)
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            if 'procParams' in elem:
                # Discard operator parameters: they do not change the type
                continue
            # Sequence, Choice (case insensitive)
            if basic.kind in ('SequenceType', 'ChoiceType'):
                if 'index' in elem:
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                    raise TypeError('Element {} cannot have an index'
                                    .format(path[0]))
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                elem_asn1 = elem.replace('_', '-').lower()
                type_idx = [c for c in basic.Children
                            if c.lower() == elem_asn1]
                if type_idx:
                    result = basic.Children[type_idx[0]].type
                else:
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                    raise TypeError('Field ' + elem
                                     + ' not found in expression '
                                     + '!'.join(path))
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                    break
            # Sequence of
            elif basic.kind == 'SequenceOfType':
                # Can be an index or a substring
                if 'index' in elem:
                    # Index - change to the type of the Seqof elements
                    result = basic.type
                elif 'substring' in elem:
                    # Don't change the type, still a SEQUENCE OF
                    # XXX Size may differ
                    pass
            elif basic.kind == 'EnumeratedType':
                pass
            elif basic.kind.endswith('StringType'):
                # Can be an index or a substring
                if 'index' in elem:
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                    raise TypeError('Index on a string is not supported')
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                elif 'substring' in elem:
                    # don't change type, returns a string
                    # XXX Size may differ
                    pass
            else:
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                raise TypeError('Incorrect field or index')
    return result
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def fix_expression_types(expr, context):
    ''' Check/ensure type consistency in expressions having two sides '''
    if isinstance(expr, ogAST.Primary):
        return

    for side in ('left', 'right'):
        # Determine if the expression is a variable
        uk_expr = getattr(expr, side)
        if uk_expr.exprType == UNKNOWN_TYPE \
                and isinstance(uk_expr, ogAST.PrimPath) \
                and len(uk_expr.value) == 1:
            try:
                exprType = find_variable(uk_expr.value[0], context)
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                # Differentiate DCL and FPAR variables
                use_type = ogAST.PrimVariable
                if isinstance(context, ogAST.Procedure):
                    for each in context.fpar:
                        if each['name'].lower() == uk_expr.value[0].lower():
                            use_type = ogAST.PrimFPAR
                            break
                setattr(expr, side, use_type(primary=uk_expr))
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                getattr(expr, side).exprType = exprType
            except AttributeError:
                pass

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    # If a side of the expression is of Enumerated or Choice type, check if
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    # the other side is a literal of that sort, and change type accordingly
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    for side in permutations(('left', 'right')):
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        side_type = find_basic_type(getattr(expr, side[0]).exprType).kind
        if side_type == 'EnumeratedType':
            prim = ogAST.PrimEnumeratedValue(primary=getattr(expr, side[1]))
        elif side_type == 'ChoiceEnumeratedType':
            prim = ogAST.PrimChoiceDeterminant(primary=getattr(expr, side[1]))
        try:
            check_type_compatibility(prim, getattr(expr, side[0]).exprType,
                                     context)
            setattr(expr, side[1], prim)
            getattr(expr, side[1]).exprType = getattr(expr, side[0]).exprType
        except (UnboundLocalError, AttributeError, TypeError):
            pass

    # If a side type remains unknown, check if it is an ASN.1 constant
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    for side in permutations(('left', 'right')):
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        value = getattr(expr, side[0])
        if value.exprType == UNKNOWN_TYPE and is_constant(value):
            setattr(expr, side[0], ogAST.PrimConstant(primary=value))
            getattr(expr, side[0]).exprType = getattr(expr, side[1]).exprType

    for side in (expr.right, expr.left):
        if side.is_raw:
            raw_expr = side
        else:
            typed_expr = side
            ref_type = typed_expr.exprType

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    # If a side is a raw Sequence Of with unknown type, try to resolve it
    for side in permutations(('left', 'right')):
        value = getattr(expr, side[0])  # get expr.left then expr.right
        if not isinstance(value, ogAST.PrimSequenceOf):
            continue
        other = getattr(expr, side[1])  # other side
        basic = find_basic_type(value.exprType)
        if basic.kind == 'SequenceOfType' and basic.type == UNKNOWN_TYPE:
            asn_type = find_basic_type(other.exprType)
            if asn_type.kind == 'SequenceOfType':
                asn_type = asn_type.type
                for idx, elem in enumerate(value.value):
                    check_expr = ogAST.ExprAssign()
                    check_expr.left = ogAST.PrimPath()
                    check_expr.left.exprType = asn_type
                    check_expr.right = elem
                    fix_expression_types(check_expr, context)
                    value.value[idx] = check_expr.right
            # the type of the raw PrimSequenceOf can be set now
            value.exprType.type = asn_type


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    # Type check that is specific to IN expressions
    if isinstance(expr, ogAST.ExprIn):
        # check that left part is a SEQUENCE OF or a string
        container_basic_type = find_basic_type(expr.left.exprType)
        if container_basic_type.kind == 'SequenceOfType':
            ref_type = container_basic_type.type
        elif container_basic_type.kind.endswith('StringType'):
            ref_type = container_basic_type
        else:
            raise TypeError('IN expression: right part must be a list')
        compare_types(expr.right.exprType, ref_type)
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        if expr.right.is_raw == expr.left.is_raw == True:
            # If both sides are raw (e.g. "3 in {1,2,3}"), evaluate expression
            bool_expr = ogAST.PrimBoolean()
            bool_expr.inputString = expr.inputString
            bool_expr.line = expr.line
            bool_expr.charPositionInLine = expr.charPositionInLine
            bool_expr.exprType = type('PrBool', (object,),
                                      {'kind': 'BooleanType'})
            if expr.right.value in [each.value for each in expr.left.value]:
                bool_expr.value = ['true']
                raise Warning('Expression is always true', bool_expr)
            else:
                bool_expr.value = ['false']
                raise Warning('Expression is always false', bool_expr)
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        return

    if expr.right.is_raw == expr.left.is_raw == False:
        unknown = [uk_expr for uk_expr in expr.right, expr.left
                   if uk_expr.exprType == UNKNOWN_TYPE]
        if unknown:
            raise TypeError('Cannot resolve type of "{}"'
                            .format(unknown[0].inputString))

    # In Sequence, Choice, SEQUENCE OF, and IfThenElse expressions,
    # we must fix missing inner types
    # (due to similarities, the following should be refactored FIXME)
    if isinstance(expr.right, ogAST.PrimSequence):
        # left side must have a known type
        asn_type = find_basic_type(expr.left.exprType)
        if asn_type.kind != 'SequenceType':
            raise TypeError('left side must be a SEQUENCE type')
        for field, fd_expr in expr.right.value.viewitems():
            if fd_expr.exprType == UNKNOWN_TYPE:
                try:
                    expected_type = asn_type.Children.get(
                                                 field.replace('_', '-')).type
                except AttributeError:
                    raise TypeError('Field not found: ' + field)
                check_expr = ogAST.ExprAssign()
                check_expr.left = ogAST.PrimPath()
                check_expr.left.exprType = expected_type
                check_expr.right = fd_expr
                fix_expression_types(check_expr, context)
                # Id of fd_expr may have changed (enumerated, choice)
                expr.right.value[field] = check_expr.right
    elif isinstance(expr.right, ogAST.PrimChoiceItem):
        asn_type = find_basic_type(expr.left.exprType)
        field = expr.right.value['choice'].replace('_', '-')
        if asn_type.kind != 'ChoiceType' \
                or field.lower() not in [key.lower()
                                  for key in asn_type.Children.viewkeys()]:
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            raise TypeError('Field is not valid in CHOICE:' + field)
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        key, = [key for key in asn_type.Children.viewkeys()
                if key.lower() == field.lower()]
        if expr.right.value['value'].exprType == UNKNOWN_TYPE:
            try:
                expected_type = asn_type.Children.get(key).type
            except AttributeError:
                raise TypeError('Field not found in CHOICE: ' + field)
            check_expr = ogAST.ExprAssign()
            check_expr.left = ogAST.PrimPath()
            check_expr.left.exprType = expected_type
            check_expr.right = expr.right.value['value']
            fix_expression_types(check_expr, context)
            expr.right.value['value'] = check_expr.right
    elif isinstance(expr.right, ogAST.PrimIfThenElse):
        for det in ('then', 'else'):
            # Recursively fix possibly missing types in the expression
            check_expr = ogAST.ExprAssign()
            check_expr.left = ogAST.PrimPath()
            check_expr.left.exprType = expr.left.exprType
            check_expr.right = expr.right.value[det]
            fix_expression_types(check_expr, context)
            expr.right.value[det] = check_expr.right
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 #  elif isinstance(expr.right, ogAST.PrimSequenceOf):
 #      asn_type = find_basic_type(expr.left.exprType).type
 #      for idx, elem in enumerate(expr.right.value):
 #          check_expr = ogAST.ExprAssign()
 #          check_expr.left = ogAST.PrimPath()
 #          check_expr.left.exprType = asn_type
 #          check_expr.right = elem
 #          fix_expression_types(check_expr, context)
 #          expr.right.value[idx] = check_expr.right
 #      # the type of the raw PrimSequenceOf can be set now
 #      expr.right.exprType.type = asn_type
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    if isinstance(expr, (ogAST.ExprAnd, ogAST.ExprOr, ogAST.ExprXor)):
        # Bitwise operators: check that both sides are booleans
        for side in expr.left, expr.right:
            basic_type = find_basic_type(side.exprType)
            if basic_type.kind in ('BooleanType', 'BitStringType'):
                continue
            elif basic_type.kind == 'SequenceOfType':
                if find_basic_type(side.exprType).type.kind == 'BooleanType':
                    continue
            else:
                raise TypeError('Bitwise operators only work with '
                                'booleans and arrays of booleans')
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    if expr.right.is_raw != expr.left.is_raw:
        check_type_compatibility(raw_expr, ref_type, context)
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        if not raw_expr.exprType.kind.startswith(('Integer', 'Real')):
            # Raw int/real must keep their type because of the range
            # that can be computed
            raw_expr.exprType = ref_type
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    else:
        compare_types(expr.left.exprType, expr.right.exprType)

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    if isinstance(expr, ogAST.ExprAssign):
        # Assignment with numerical value: check range
        basic = find_basic_type(expr.left.exprType)
        if basic.kind.startswith(('Integer', 'Real')):
            check_range(basic, find_basic_type(expr.right.exprType))


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def expression_list(root, context):
    ''' Parse a list of expression parameters '''
    errors = []
    warnings = []
    result = []
    for param in root.getChildren():
        exp, err, warn = expression(param, context)
        errors.extend(err)
        warnings.extend(warn)
        result.append(exp)
    return result, errors, warnings

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def primary_value(root, context=None):
    '''
        Process a primary expression such as a!b(4)!c(hello)
        or { x 1, y a:2 } (ASN.1 Value Notation)
        Try to determine the type of the primary when possible
        There are three cases where the type cannot be determined at all:
        (1) if the primary is a single literal (can be a var, enum or choice)
        (2) if the primary is a sequence literal
        (3) if the type is a choice literal
        In case of a SEQUENCE OF, the Min/Max values are set
    '''
    warnings = []
    errors = []
    prim = None
    global TMPVAR
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    def primary_elem(child):
        ''' Process a single token '''
        prim = None
        if child.type == lexer.ID:
            prim = ogAST.PrimPath()
            prim.value = [child.text]
            prim.exprType = UNKNOWN_TYPE
        elif child.type == lexer.INT:
            prim = ogAST.PrimInteger()
            prim.value = [child.text.lower()]
            prim.exprType = type('PrInt', (object,),
                 {'kind': 'IntegerType', 'Min': child.text, 'Max': child.text})
        elif child.type in (lexer.TRUE, lexer.FALSE):
            prim = ogAST.PrimBoolean()
            prim.value = [child.text.lower()]
            prim.exprType = type('PrBool', (object,), {'kind': 'BooleanType'})
        elif child.type == lexer.FLOAT:
            prim = ogAST.PrimReal()
            prim.value = [child.getChild(0).text]
            prim.exprType = type('PrReal', (object,),
                 {'kind': 'RealType',
                  'Min': prim.value[0], 'Max': prim.value[0]})
        elif child.type == lexer.STRING:
            prim = ogAST.PrimStringLiteral()
            prim.value = child.getChild(0).text
            prim.exprType = type('PrStr', (object,),
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                          {'kind': 'StringType',
                           'Min': str(len(prim.value) - 2),
                           'Max': str(len(prim.value) - 2)})
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        elif child.type == lexer.FLOAT2:
            prim = ogAST.PrimMantissaBaseExp()
            mant = float(child.getChild(0).toString())
            base = int(child.getChild(1).toString())
            exp = int(child.getChild(2).toString())
            # Compute mantissa * base**exponent to get the value type range
            value = float(mant * pow(base, exp))
            prim.value = {'mantissa': mant, 'base': base, 'exponent': exp}
            prim.exprType = type('PrMantissa', (object,),
                 {'kind': 'RealType',
                  'Min': str(value), 'Max': str(value)})
        elif child.type == lexer.EMPTYSTR:
            # Empty SEQUENCE OF (i.e. "{}")
            prim = ogAST.PrimEmptyString()
            prim.exprType = type('PrES', (object,), {'kind': 'SequenceOfType',
                'Min': '0', 'Max': '0'})
        elif child.type == lexer.CHOICE:
            prim = ogAST.PrimChoiceItem()
            choice = child.getChild(0).toString()
            expr, err, warn = expression(child.getChild(1), context)
            errors.extend(err)
            warnings.extend(warn)
            prim.value = {'choice': choice, 'value': expr}
            prim.exprType = UNKNOWN_TYPE
        elif child.type == lexer.SEQUENCE:
            prim = ogAST.PrimSequence()
            prim.value = {}
            for elem in child.getChildren():
                if elem.type == lexer.ID:
                    field_name = elem.text
                else:
                    prim.value[field_name], err, warn = (
                                                     expression(elem, context))
                    errors.extend(err)
                    warnings.extend(warn)
            prim.exprType = UNKNOWN_TYPE
        elif child.type == lexer.SEQOF:
            prim = ogAST.PrimSequenceOf()
            prim.value = []
            for elem in child.getChildren():
                # SEQUENCE OF elements cannot have fieldnames/indexes
                prim_elem = primary_elem(elem)
                prim_elem.inputString = get_input_string(elem)
                prim_elem.line = elem.getLine()
                prim_elem.charPositionInLine = elem.getCharPositionInLine()
                prim.value.append(prim_elem)
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            prim.exprType = type('PrSO', (object,), {
                'kind': 'SequenceOfType',
                'Min': str(len(child.children)),
                'Max': str(len(child.children)),
                'type': UNKNOWN_TYPE
             })
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        elif child.type == lexer.BITSTR:
            prim = ogAST.PrimBitStringLiteral()
            warnings.append('Bit string literal not supported yet')
        elif child.type == lexer.OCTSTR:
            prim = ogAST.PrimOctetStringLiteral()
            warnings.append('Octet string literal not supported yet')
        else:
            warnings.append('Unsupported primary construct, type:' +
                    str(child.type) +
                    ' (line ' + str(child.getLine()) + ')')
        return prim

    prim = primary_elem(root.getChild(0))

    # Process fields or params, if any
    for child in root.children[slice(1, len(root.children))]:
        if not isinstance(prim, ogAST.PrimPath):
            errors.append('Ground expression cannot have index or params: ' +
                           get_input_string(root))
        if child.type == lexer.PARAMS:
            # Cover parameters of operator calls within a task
            # but not parameters of output or procedure calls
            # (Except procedure calls embedded in a task)
            expr_list, err, warn = expression_list(child, context)
            errors.extend(err)
            warnings.extend(warn)
            procedures_list = [proc.inputString.lower() for proc in
                    context.procedures]
            if prim.value[0].lower() in (SPECIAL_OPERATORS.keys()
                                         + procedures_list):
                # here we must check/set the type of each param
                try:
                    check_and_fix_op_params(
                            prim.value[0].lower(), expr_list, context)
                except (AttributeError, TypeError) as err:
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                    LOG.debug(traceback.format_exc())
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                    errors.append(str(err) + '- ' + get_input_string(root))
                prim.value.append({'procParams': expr_list})
            else:
                if len(expr_list) == 1:
                    # Index (only one param)
                    prim.value.append({'index': expr_list})
                elif len(expr_list) == 2:
                    # Substring (range, two params)
                    prim.value.append(
                            {'substring': expr_list, 'tmpVar': TMPVAR})
                    TMPVAR += 1
                else:
                    errors.append('Wrong number of parameters')
        elif child.type == lexer.FIELD_NAME:
            prim.value.append(child.getChild(0).text)

    # If there were parameters or index, try to determine the type of
    # the expression
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    if isinstance(prim, ogAST.PrimPath) and len(prim.value) > 1:
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        try:
            prim.exprType = find_type(prim.value, context)
        except TypeError as err:
            errors.append('Type of expression "'
                           + get_input_string(root)
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                           + '" not found: ' + str(err))
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        except AttributeError as err:
            LOG.debug('[find_types] ' + str(err))
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    if prim:
        prim.inputString = get_input_string(root)
    else:
        prim = ogAST.PrimPath()
    return prim, errors, warnings

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def primary(root, context):
    ''' Process a primary (-/NOT value) '''
    warnings = []
    errors = []
    op_not, op_minus = False, False
    prim = None
    for child in root.getChildren():
        if child.type == lexer.NOT:
            op_not = True
        elif child.type == lexer.MINUS:
            op_minus = True
        elif child.type == lexer.PRIMARY_ID:
            # Variable reference, indexed values, or ASN.1 value notation
            prim, err, warn = primary_value(child, context=context)
            errors.extend(err)
            warnings.extend(warn)
        elif child.type == lexer.EXPRESSION:
            prim, err, warn = expression(child.getChild(0), context)
            errors.extend(err)
            warnings.extend(warn)
        elif child.type == lexer.IFTHENELSE:
            prim = ogAST.PrimIfThenElse()
            if_part, then_part, else_part = child.getChildren()
            if_expr, err, warn = expression(if_part, context)
            errors.extend(err)
            warnings.extend(warn)
            then_expr, err, warn = expression(then_part, context)
            errors.extend(err)
            warnings.extend(warn)
            else_expr, err, warn = expression(else_part, context)
            errors.extend(err)
            warnings.extend(warn)
            global TMPVAR
            prim.value = {'if': if_expr,
                          'then': then_expr,
                          'else': else_expr,
                          'tmpVar': TMPVAR}
            prim.exprType = UNKNOWN_TYPE
            TMPVAR += 1
        else:
            warnings.append('Unsupported primary child type:' +
                    str(child.type) + ' (line ' +
                    str(child.getLine()) + ')')
    if prim:
        prim.inputString = get_input_string(root)
        prim.line = root.getLine()
        prim.charPositionInLine = root.getCharPositionInLine()
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        if op_not:
            prim.op_not = True
        if op_minus:
            prim.op_minus = True

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    return prim, errors, warnings

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def expression(root, context):
    ''' Expression analysis (e.g. 5+5*hello(world)!foo) '''
    errors = []
    warnings = []
    global TMPVAR
    if root.type != lexer.PRIMARY:
        expr = OPKIND[root.type](get_input_string(root), root.getLine(),
                                 root.getCharPositionInLine())
        expr.exprType = UNKNOWN_TYPE

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    if root.type in (lexer.OR, lexer.AND):
        # detect optional THEN in AND/OR expressions, indicating that the
        # short-circuit version of the operator is needed, to prevent the
        # evaluation of the right part if the left part does not evaluate
        # to true.
        for idx, val in enumerate(root.children):
            if val.type == lexer.THEN:
                expr.shortcircuit = ' then'
                root.children.pop(idx)
                break
            elif val.type == lexer.ELSE:
                expr.shortcircuit = ' else'
                root.children.pop(idx)
                break


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    if root.type in (lexer.PLUS,
                     lexer.ASTERISK,
                     lexer.DASH,
                     lexer.APPEND,
                     lexer.IMPLIES,
                     lexer.OR,
                     lexer.XOR,
                     lexer.AND,
                     lexer.EQ,
                     lexer.NEQ,
                     lexer.GT,
                     lexer.GE,
                     lexer.LT,
                     lexer.LE,
                     lexer.IN,
                     lexer.DIV,
                     lexer.MOD,
                     lexer.REM):

        left, right = root.getChildren()

        if root.type == lexer.IN:
            # Left and right are reversed for IN operator
            left, right = right, left

        expr.left, err_left, warn_left = expression(left, context)
        expr.right, err_right, warn_right = expression(right, context)
        errors.extend(err_left)
        warnings.extend(warn_left)
        errors.extend(err_right)
        warnings.extend(warn_right)

        try:
            fix_expression_types(expr, context)
        except (AttributeError, TypeError) as err:
            errors.append('Types are incompatible in expression: left (' +
                expr.left.inputString + ', type= ' +
                type_name(expr.left.exprType) + '), right (' +
                expr.right.inputString + ', type= ' +
                type_name(expr.right.exprType) + ') ' + str(err))
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        except Warning as warn:
            # warnings are raised when an expression returns always true or
            # false. In that case a new expression is returned
            report, new_expr = warn.args
            warnings.append('Expression "{}" : {}'.
                             format(expr.inputString, str(report)))
            expr = new_expr
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    if root.type in (lexer.EQ,
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                     lexer.NEQ,
                     lexer.GT,
                     lexer.GE,
                     lexer.LT,
                     lexer.LE,
                     lexer.IN):
        expr.exprType = BOOLEAN
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    # Expressions returning a numerical type must have their range defined
    # accordingly with the kind of opration used between operand:
    elif root.type in (lexer.PLUS, lexer.ASTERISK, lexer.DASH,
                       lexer.DIV, lexer.MOD, lexer.REM):
        basic = find_basic_type(expr.left.exprType)
        left = find_basic_type(expr.left.exprType)
        right = find_basic_type(expr.right.exprType)
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        try:
            if isinstance(expr, ogAST.ExprPlus):
                attrs = {'Min': str(float(left.Min) + float(right.Min)),
                         'Max': str(float(left.Max) + float(right.Max))}
                expr.exprType = type('Plus', (basic,), attrs)
            elif isinstance(expr, ogAST.ExprMul):
                attrs = {'Min': str(float(left.Min) * float(right.Min)),
                         'Max': str(float(left.Max) * float(right.Max))}
                expr.exprType = type('Mul', (basic,), attrs)
            elif isinstance(expr, ogAST.ExprMinus):
                attrs = {'Min': str(float(left.Min) - float(right.Min)),
                         'Max': str(float(left.Max) - float(right.Max))}
                expr.exprType = type('Minus', (basic,), attrs)
            elif isinstance(expr, ogAST.ExprDiv):
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                attrs = {'Min': str(float(left.Min) / (float(right.Min) or 1)),
                         'Max': str(float(left.Max) / (float(right.Max) or 1))}
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                expr.exprType = type('Div', (basic,), attrs)
            elif isinstance(expr, (ogAST.ExprMod, ogAST.ExprRem)):
                attrs = {'Min': right.Min, 'Max': right.Max}
                expr.exprType = type('Mod', (basic,), attrs)
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        except (ValueError, AttributeError):
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            errors.append('Check that all your numerical data types have '
                          'a range constraint')
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    elif root.type in (lexer.OR, lexer.AND, lexer.XOR):
        # in the case of bitwise operators, if both sides are arrays,
        # then the result is an array too
        basic_left = find_basic_type(expr.left.exprType)
        basic_right = find_basic_type(expr.right.exprType)
        if basic_left.kind == basic_right.kind == 'BooleanType':
            expr.exprType = BOOLEAN
        else:
            expr.exprType = expr.left.exprType

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    elif root.type in (lexer.PLUS,
                       lexer.ASTERISK,
                       lexer.DASH,
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                       lexer.DIV,
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                       lexer.APPEND,
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                       lexer.REM,
                       lexer.MOD):
        expr.exprType = expr.left.exprType

    if root.type == lexer.PRIMARY:
        expr, err, warn = primary(root, context)
        expr.inputString = get_input_string(root)
        expr.line = root.getLine()
        expr.charPositionInLine = root.getCharPositionInLine()
        errors.extend(err)
        warnings.extend(warn)

    # Expressions may need intermediate storage for code generation
    expr.tmpVar = TMPVAR
    TMPVAR += 1
    return expr, errors, warnings

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def variables(root, ta_ast, context):
    ''' Process declarations of variables (dcl a,b Type := 5) '''
    var = []
    errors = []
    warnings = []
    asn1_sort, def_value = UNKNOWN_TYPE, None
    for child in root.getChildren():
        if child.type == lexer.ID:
            var.append(child.text)
        elif child.type == lexer.SORT:
            sort = child.getChild(0).text
            # Find corresponding type in ASN.1 model
            try:
                asn1_sort = sdl_to_asn1(sort)
            except TypeError as err:
                errors.append(str(err) + '(line ' + str(child.getLine()) + ')')
        elif child.type == lexer.GROUND:
            # Default value for a variable - needs to be a ground expression
            def_value, err, warn = expression(child.getChild(0), context)
            errors.extend(err)
            warnings.extend(warn)
            expr = ogAST.ExprAssign()
            expr.left = ogAST.PrimPath()
            expr.left.inputString = var[-1]
            expr.left.exprType = asn1_sort
            expr.right = def_value
            try:
                fix_expression_types(expr, context)
                def_value = expr.right
            except(AttributeError, TypeError) as err:
                #print (traceback.format_exc())
                errors.append('Types are incompatible in DCL assignment: '
                    'left (' +
                    expr.left.inputString + ', type= ' +
                    type_name(expr.left.exprType) + '), right (' +
                    expr.right.inputString + ', type= ' +
                    type_name(expr.right.exprType) + ') ' + str(err))
            else:
                def_value.exprType = asn1_sort

            if not def_value.is_raw and not is_constant(def_value):
                errors.append('In variable declaration {}: default'
                              ' value is not a valid ground expression'.
                              format(var[-1]))
        else:
            warnings.append('Unsupported variables construct type: ' +
                    str(child.type))
    for variable in var:
        # Add to the context and text area AST entries
        context.variables[variable] = (asn1_sort, def_value)
        ta_ast.variables[variable] = (asn1_sort, def_value)
    if not DV:
        errors.append('Cannot do semantic checks on variable declarations')
    return errors, warnings

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def dcl(root, ta_ast, context):
    ''' Process a set of variable declarations '''
    errors = []
    warnings = []
    for child in root.getChildren():
        if child.type == lexer.VARIABLES:
            err, warn = variables(child, ta_ast, context)
            errors.extend(err)
            warnings.extend(warn)
        else:
            warnings.append(
                    'Unsupported dcl construct, type: ' + str(child.type))
    return errors, warnings

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def fpar(root):
    ''' Process a formal parameter declaration '''
    errors = []
    warnings = []
    params = []
    asn1_sort = UNKNOWN_TYPE
    for param in root.getChildren():
        param_names = []
        sort = ''
        direction = 'in'
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        assert param.type == lexer.PARAM
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        for child in param.getChildren():
            if child.type == lexer.INOUT:
                direction = 'out'
            elif child.type == lexer.IN:
                pass
            elif child.type == lexer.ID:
                # variable name
                param_names.append(child.text)
            elif child.type == lexer.SORT:
                sort = child.getChild(0).text
                try:
                    asn1_sort = sdl_to_asn1(sort)
                except TypeError as err:
                    errors.append(str(err) +
                            '(line ' + str(child.getLine()) + ')')
                for name in param_names:
                    params.append({'name': name, 'direction': direction,
                                   'type': asn1_sort})
            else:
                warnings.append(
                        'Unsupported construct in FPAR, type: ' +
                        str(child.type))
    return params, errors, warnings

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def composite_state(root, parent=None, context=None):
    ''' Parse a composite state definition '''
    comp = ogAST.CompositeState()
    errors, warnings = [], []
    # Create a list of all inherited data
    try:
        comp.global_variables = dict(context.variables)
        comp.global_variables.update(context.global_variables)
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        comp.global_timers = list(context.timers)
        comp.global_timers.extend(list(context.global_timers))
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        comp.input_signals = context.input_signals
        comp.output_signals = context.output_signals
        comp.procedures = context.procedures
        comp.operators = dict(context.operators)
    except AttributeError:
        LOG.debug('Procedure context is undefined')
    # Gather the list of states defined in the composite state
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    # and map a list of transitionsi to each state
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    comp.mapping = {name: [] for name in get_state_list(root)}
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    inner_composite = []
    states = []
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    for child in root.getChildren():
        if child.type == lexer.ID:
            comp.line = child.getLine()
            comp.charPositionInLine = child.getCharPositionInLine()
            comp.statename = child.toString().lower()
        elif child.type == lexer.COMMENT:
            comp.comment, _, _ = end(child)
        elif child.type == lexer.IN:
            # state entry point
            for point in child.getChildren():
                comp.state_entrypoints.append(point.toString().lower())
        elif child.type == lexer.OUT:
            # state exit point
            for point in child.getChildren():
                comp.state_exitpoints.append(point.toString().lower())
        elif child.type == lexer.TEXTAREA:
            textarea, err, warn = text_area(child, context=comp)
            errors.extend(err)
            warnings.extend(warn)
            comp.content.textAreas.append(textarea)
        elif child.type == lexer.PROCEDURE:
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            new_proc, err, warn = procedure(child, context=comp)
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            errors.extend(err)
            warnings.extend(warn)
            if new_proc.inputString.strip().lower() == 'entry':
                comp.entry_procedure = new_proc
            elif new_proc.inputString.strip().lower() == 'exit':
                comp.exit_procedure = new_proc
            comp.content.inner_procedures.append(new_proc)
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            # Add procedure to the context, to make it visible at scope level
            context.procedures.append(new_proc)
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        elif child.type == lexer.COMPOSITE_STATE:
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            inner_composite.append(child)
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        elif child.type == lexer.STATE:
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            states.append(child)
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        elif child.type == lexer.FLOATING_LABEL:
            lab, err, warn = floating_label(child, parent=None, context=comp)
            errors.extend(err)
            warnings.extend(warn)
            comp.content.floating_labels.append(lab)
        elif child.type == lexer.START:
            # START transition (fills the mapping structure)
            st, err, warn = start(child, context=comp)
            errors.extend(err)
            warnings.extend(warn)
            if st.inputString:
                comp.content.named_start.append(st)
            elif not comp.content.start:
                comp.content.start = st
            else:
                errors.append('Only one unnamed START transition is allowed')
        else:
            warnings.append(
                    'Unsupported construct in nested state, type: ' +
                    str(child.type) + ' - line ' + str(child.getLine()) +
                    ' - state name: ' + str(comp.statename))
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    for each in inner_composite:
        # Parse inner composite states after the text areas to make sure
        # that all variables are propagated to the the inner scope
        inner, err, warn = composite_state(each, parent=None,
                                           context=comp)
        errors.extend(err)
        warnings.extend(warn)
        comp.composite_states.append(inner)
    for each in states:
        # And parse the states after inner states to make sure all CONNECTS
        # are properly defined.
        # Fill up the 'mapping' structure.
        newstate, err, warn = state(each, parent=None, context=comp)
        errors.extend(err)
        warnings.extend(warn)
        comp.content.states.append(newstate)
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    return comp, errors, warnings


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def procedure(root, parent=None, context=None):
    ''' Parse a procedure definition '''
    proc = ogAST.Procedure()
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    errors = []
    warnings = []
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    # Create a list of all inherited data
    try:
        proc.global_variables = dict(context.variables)
        proc.global_variables.update(context.global_variables)
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        proc.global_timers = list(context.timers)
        proc.global_timers.extend(list(context.global_timers))
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        proc.input_signals = context.input_signals
        proc.output_signals = context.output_signals
        proc.procedures = context.procedures
        proc.operators = dict(context.operators)
    except AttributeError:
        LOG.debug('Procedure context is undefined')
    # Gather the list of states defined in the procedure
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    # and create a mapping of transitions to each state
    # (Note, procedures in OG currently do NOT support states)
    proc.mapping = {name: [] for name in get_state_list(root)}
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    for child in root.getChildren():
        if child.type == lexer.CIF:
            # Get symbol coordinates
            proc.pos_x, proc.pos_y, proc.width, proc.height = cif(child)
        elif child.type == lexer.ID:
            proc.line = child.getLine()
            proc.charPositionInLine = child.getCharPositionInLine()
            proc.inputString = child.toString()
        elif child.type == lexer.COMMENT:
            proc.comment, _, ___ = end(child)
        elif child.type == lexer.TEXTAREA:
            textarea, err, warn = text_area(child, context=proc)
            errors.extend(err)
            warnings.extend(warn)
            proc.content.textAreas.append(textarea)
        elif child.type == lexer.PROCEDURE:
            new_proc, err, warn = procedure(child, context=proc)
            errors.extend(err)
            warnings.extend(warn)
            proc.content.inner_procedures.append(new_proc)
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            # Add procedure to the context, to make it visible at scope level
            context.procedures.append(new_proc)
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        elif child.type == lexer.EXTERNAL:
            proc.external = True
        elif child.type == lexer.FPAR:
            params, err, warn = fpar(child)
            errors.extend(err)
            warnings.extend(warn)
            proc.fpar = params
        elif child.type == lexer.START:
            # START transition (fills the mapping structure)
            proc.content.start, err, warn = start(child, context=proc)
            errors.extend(err)
            warnings.extend(warn)
        elif child.type == lexer.STATE:
            # STATE - fills up the 'mapping' structure.
            newstate, err, warn = state(child, parent=None, context=proc)
            errors.extend(err)
            warnings.extend(warn)
            proc.content.states.append(newstate)
        elif child.type == lexer.FLOATING_LABEL:
            lab, err, warn = floating_label(child, parent=None, context=proc)
            errors.extend(err)
            warnings.extend(warn)
            proc.content.floating_labels.append(lab)
        else:
            warnings.append(
                    'Unsupported construct in procedure, type: ' +
                    str(child.type) + ' - line ' + str(child.getLine()) +
                    ' - string: ' + str(proc.inputString))
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    for each in proc.terminators:
        # check that RETURN statements type is correct
        if not proc.return_type and each.return_expr:
            errors.append('No return value expected in procedure '
                          + proc.inputString)
        elif proc.return_type and each.return_expr:
            check_expr = ogAST.ExprAssign()
            check_expr.left = ogAST.PrimPath()
            check_expr.left.exprType = proc.return_type
            check_expr.right = each.return_expr
            try:
                fix_expression_types(check_expr, context)
            except (TypeError, AttributeError) as err:
                errors.append(str(err))
            # Id of fd_expr may have changed (enumerated, choice)
            each.return_expr = check_expr.right
        elif proc.return_type and not each.return_expr:
            errors.append('Missing return value in procedure '
                          + proc.inputString)
        else:
            continue
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    return proc, errors, warnings


def floating_label(root, parent, context):
    ''' Floating label: name and optional transition '''
    _ = parent
    errors = []
    warnings = []
    lab = ogAST.Floating_label()
    # Keep track of the number of terminator statements following the label
    # useful if we want to render graphs from the SDL model
    terminators = len(context.terminators)
    for child in root.getChildren():
        if child.type == lexer.ID:
            lab.inputString = child.text
            lab.line = child.getLine()
            lab.charPositionInLine = child.getCharPositionInLine()
        elif child.type == lexer.CIF:
            # Get symbol coordinates
            lab.pos_x, lab.pos_y, lab.width, lab.height = cif(child)
        elif child.type == lexer.HYPERLINK:
            lab.hyperlink = child.getChild(0).text[1:-1]
        elif child.type == lexer.TRANSITION:
            trans, err, warn = transition(
                                    child, parent=lab, context=context)
            errors.extend(err)
            warnings.extend(warn)
            lab.transition = trans
        else:
            warnings.append(
                    'Unsupported construct in floating label: ' +
                    str(child.type))
    if not lab.transition:
        warnings.append('Floating labels not followed by a transition: ' +
                        str(lab.inputString))
    # At the end of the label parsing, get the the list of terminators that
    # the transition contains by making a diff with the list at context
    # level (we counted the number of terminators before parsing the item)
    lab.terminators = list(context.terminators[terminators:])
    return lab, errors, warnings

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def newtype_gettype(root, ta_ast, context):
    ''' Returns the name of the new type created by a NEWTYPE construction '''
    errors = []
    warnings = []
    newtypename = ""
    if (root.getChild(0).type != lexer.SORT):
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        warnings.append("Expected SORT in newtype identifier, got type:"
                        + str(child.type))
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        return newtypename, errors, warnings
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    newtypename = root.getChild(0).getChild(0).text
    return newtypename, errors, warnings

def get_array_type(root):
    ''' Returns the subtype associated to an NEWTYPE ARRAY construction '''
    indexSort = root.getChild(0).text
    typeSort  = root.getChild(1).text
    typeSortLine = root.getChild(1).getLine()
    typeSortChar = root.getChild(1).getCharPositionInLine()
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