ogParser.py 224 KB
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#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

"""
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    OpenGEODE SDL parser
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    This library builds the SDL AST (described in ogAST.py)
    The AST can then be used to build SDL backends such as the
    diagram editor (placing symbols in a graphical canvas for editition)
    or code generators, etc.

    The AST build is based on the ANTLR-grammar and generated lexer and parser
    (the grammar is in the file sdl92.g and requires antlr 3.1.3 for Python
    to be compiled and used).

    During the build of the AST this library makes a number of semantic
    checks on the SDL input mode.

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    Copyright (c) 2012-2019 European Space Agency
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    Designed and implemented by Maxime Perrotin

    Contact: maxime.perrotin@esa.int
"""

__author__ = 'Maxime Perrotin'

import sys
import os
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import math
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import operator
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import logging
import traceback
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import codecs
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from typing import Dict, Tuple
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from inspect import currentframe, getframeinfo
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import binascii
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from textwrap import dedent
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from itertools import chain, permutations, combinations
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from collections import defaultdict, Counter
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import antlr3
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from antlr3 import tree
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from . import sdl92Lexer as lexer
from .sdl92Parser import sdl92Parser
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from . import samnmax, ogAST
from .Asn1scc import parse_asn1, ASN1, create_choice_determinant_types
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LOG = logging.getLogger(__name__)

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EXPR_NODE: Dict[int, ogAST.Expression] = {
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    lexer.PLUS:     ogAST.ExprPlus,
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    lexer.ASTERISK: ogAST.ExprMul,
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    lexer.IMPLIES:  ogAST.ExprImplies,
    lexer.DASH:     ogAST.ExprMinus,
    lexer.OR:       ogAST.ExprOr,
    lexer.AND:      ogAST.ExprAnd,
    lexer.XOR:      ogAST.ExprXor,
    lexer.EQ:       ogAST.ExprEq,
    lexer.NEQ:      ogAST.ExprNeq,
    lexer.GT:       ogAST.ExprGt,
    lexer.GE:       ogAST.ExprGe,
    lexer.LT:       ogAST.ExprLt,
    lexer.LE:       ogAST.ExprLe,
    lexer.DIV:      ogAST.ExprDiv,
    lexer.MOD:      ogAST.ExprMod,
    lexer.APPEND:   ogAST.ExprAppend,
    lexer.IN:       ogAST.ExprIn,
    lexer.REM:      ogAST.ExprRem,
    lexer.NOT:      ogAST.ExprNot,
    lexer.NEG:      ogAST.ExprNeg,
    lexer.PRIMARY:  ogAST.Primary,
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}
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# Insert current path in the search list for importing modules
sys.path.insert(0, '.')

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DV = None  # type: module
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# Code generator backends may need some intemediate variables to process
# expressions. For convenience and to avoid multiple pass parsing, the parser
# tries to guess where they may be useful, and adds a hint in the AST.
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TMPVAR = 0  # type: int
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# ASN.1 types used to support the signature of special operators
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INTEGER      = type('IntegerType',    (object,), {'kind': 'IntegerType',
                                                  'Min' : str(-(2 ** 63)),
                                                  'Max' : str(2 ** 63 - 1)})
UNSIGNED     = type('IntegerType',    (object,), {'kind': 'IntegerType',
                                                  'Min' : "0",
                                                  'Max' : str(2 ** 64 - 1)})
INT32        = type('Integer32Type',  (object,), {'kind': 'Integer32Type',
                                                  'Min' : '-2147483648',
                                                  'Max' : '2147483647'})
NUMERICAL    = type('NumericalType',  (object,), {'kind': 'Numerical'})
TIMER        = type('TimerType',      (object,), {'kind': 'TimerType'})
REAL         = type('RealType',       (object,), {'kind': 'RealType',
                                                  'Min' : str(1e-308),
                                                  'Max' : str(1e308)})
LIST         = type('ListType',       (object,), {'kind': 'ListType'})
ANY_TYPE     = type('AnyType',        (object,), {'kind': 'AnyType'})
CHOICE       = type('ChoiceType',     (object,), {'kind': 'ChoiceType'})
BOOLEAN      = type('BooleanType',    (object,), {'kind': 'BooleanType'})
RAWSTRING    = type('RawString',      (object,), {'kind': 'StandardStringType',
                                                  'Min' : '0',
                                                  'Max' : '255'})
OCTETSTRING  = type('OctetString',    (object,), {'kind': 'OctetStringType'})
ENUMERATED   = type('EnumeratedType', (object,), {'kind': 'EnumeratedType'})
UNKNOWN_TYPE = type('UnknownType',    (object,), {'kind': 'UnknownType'})
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SPECIAL_OPERATORS = {
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    'abs'        : [{'type': NUMERICAL,  'direction': 'in'}],
    'ceil'       : [{'type': REAL,       'direction': 'in'}],
    'cos'        : [{'type': REAL,       'direction': 'in'}],
    'fix'        : [{'type': NUMERICAL,  'direction': 'in'}],
    'float'      : [{'type': NUMERICAL,  'direction': 'in'}],
    'floor'      : [{'type': REAL,       'direction': 'in'}],
    'length'     : [{'type': LIST,       'direction': 'in'}],
    'num'        : [{'type': ENUMERATED, 'direction': 'in'}],
    'power'      : [
                    {'type': NUMERICAL,  'direction': 'in'},
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                    {'type': NUMERICAL,  'direction': 'in'}
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                   ],
    'present'    : [{'type': CHOICE,     'direction': 'in'}],
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    'exist'      : [{'type': ANY_TYPE,   'direction': 'in'}],
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    'reset_timer': [{'type': TIMER,      'direction': 'in'}],
    'round'      : [{'type': REAL,       'direction': 'in'}],
    'set_timer'  : [
                    {'type': UNSIGNED,   'direction': 'in'},
                    {'type': TIMER,      'direction': 'in'}
                   ],
    'sin'        : [{'type': REAL,       'direction': 'in'}],
    'sqrt'       : [{'type': REAL,       'direction': 'in'}],
    'trunc'      : [{'type': REAL,       'direction': 'in'}],
    'write'      : [{'type': ANY_TYPE,   'direction': 'in'}],
    'writeln'    : [{'type': ANY_TYPE,   'direction': 'in'}],
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    'to_selector': [  #  to convert an enum to a choice discriminant
                    {'type': ENUMERATED, 'direction': 'in'},
                    {'type': ANY_TYPE,   'direction': 'in'}
                   ],
    'to_enum'    : [  #  to convert a choice discriminant to an enum
                    {'type': ENUMERATED, 'direction': 'in'},
                    {'type': ANY_TYPE,   'direction': 'in'}
                   ],
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    'val'    : [  #  to convert a number to an enumerated type value
                    {'type': UNSIGNED,   'direction': 'in'},  # eg. 1
                    {'type': ANY_TYPE,   'direction': 'in'}   # eg. MyChoice
                   ],
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    'choice_to_int' : [  #  to return the value of a numerical choice item
                    {'type': CHOICE,     'direction': 'in'},  # choice variable
                    {'type': NUMERICAL,  'direction': 'in'}   # default value
                   ],

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}
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# Container to keep a list of types mapped from ANTLR Tokens
# (Used with singledispatch/visitor pattern)
ANTLR_TOKEN_TYPES = {a: type(a, (antlr3.tree.CommonTree,), {})
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                    for a, b in lexer.__dict__.items() if type(b) == int}
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# Shortcut to create a new referenced ASN.1 type
new_ref_type = lambda refname: \
        type(str(refname), (object,),
                {'kind': 'ReferenceType',
                 'ReferencedTypeName': refname.replace('_', '-')})

# Shortcut to return a type name (Reference name or basic type)
type_name = lambda t: \
                t.kind if t.kind != 'ReferenceType' else t.ReferencedTypeName

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# return the line number of this python module, useful for debugging
lineno = lambda : currentframe().f_back.f_lineno

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# user may create SDL (non-asn1) types with the newtype keyword
# they are stored in a dedicated dictionary with the same structure
# as the ASN1SCC generated python AST
USER_DEFINED_TYPES = dict()

def types():
    ''' Return all ASN.1 and user defined types '''
    ret = getattr(DV, 'types', {}).copy()
    ret.update(USER_DEFINED_TYPES)
    return ret
#types = lambda: getattr(DV, 'types', {}) or USER_DEFINED_TYPES
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def set_global_DV(asn1_filenames):
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    # type: (List[str]) -> None
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    ''' Call ASN.1 parser and set the global dataview AST entry (DV) '''
    global DV
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    if '--toC' in sys.argv:
        rename_policy = ASN1.RenameOnlyConflicting
    else:
        rename_policy = ASN1.NoRename
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    try:
        DV = parse_asn1(tuple(asn1_filenames),
                        ast_version=ASN1.UniqueEnumeratedNames,
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                        rename_policy=rename_policy,
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                        flags=[ASN1.AstOnly],
                        pretty_print=True)
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        # Create new types corresponding to CHOICE determinants as enum
        choice_selectors = create_choice_determinant_types (DV)
        DV.types.update(choice_selectors)
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    except (ImportError, NameError) as err:
        # Can happen if DataView.py is not there
        LOG.error('Error loading ASN.1 model')
        LOG.debug(str(err))
    except TypeError as err:
        LOG.debug(traceback.format_exc())
        raise TypeError('ASN.1 compiler failed - {}'.format(str(err)))


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def substring_range(substring: ogAST.PrimSubString) -> Tuple[str, str]:
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    ''' Return the range of a substring '''
    left, right = substring.value[1]['substring']
    left_bty = find_basic_type(left.exprType)
    right_bty = find_basic_type(right.exprType)
    return left_bty.Min, right_bty.Max


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def is_number(basic_ty) -> bool:
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    ''' Return true if basic type is a raw number (i.e. not a variable) '''
    return basic_ty.__name__ in ('Universal_Integer', 'PrReal')


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def is_integer(ty) -> bool:
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    ''' Return true if a type is an Integer Type '''
    return find_basic_type(ty).kind in (
        'IntegerType',
        'Integer32Type'
    )


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def is_real(ty) -> bool:
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    ''' Return true if a type is a Real Type '''
    return find_basic_type(ty).kind == 'RealType'


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def is_numeric(ty) -> bool:
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    ''' Return true if a type is a Numeric Type '''
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    return find_basic_type(ty).kind in (
        'IntegerType',
        'Integer32Type',
        'Numerical',
        'RealType'
    )


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def is_boolean(ty) -> bool:
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    ''' Return true if a type is a Boolean Type '''
    return find_basic_type(ty).kind == 'BooleanType'


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def is_null(ty) -> bool:
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    ''' Return true if a type is a NULL Type '''
    return find_basic_type(ty).kind == 'NullType'


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def is_string(ty) -> bool:
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    ''' Return true if a type is a String Type '''
    return find_basic_type(ty).kind in (
        'StandardStringType',
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        'OctetStringType',
        'StringType'
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    )


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def is_sequenceof(ty) -> bool:
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    ''' Return true if a type is a SequenceOf Type '''
    return find_basic_type(ty).kind == 'SequenceOfType'


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def is_list(ty) -> bool:
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    ''' Return true if a type is a List Type '''
    return is_string(ty) or is_sequenceof(ty) or ty == LIST


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def is_enumerated(ty) -> bool:
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    ''' Return true if a type is an Enumerated Type '''
    return find_basic_type(ty).kind == 'EnumeratedType' or ty == ENUMERATED


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def is_sequence(ty) -> bool:
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    ''' Return true if a type is a Sequence Type '''
    return find_basic_type(ty).kind == 'SequenceType'


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def is_choice(ty) -> bool:
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    ''' Return true if a type is a Choice Type '''
    return find_basic_type(ty).kind == 'ChoiceType' or ty == CHOICE


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def is_timer(ty) -> bool:
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    ''' Return true if a type is a Timer Type '''
    return find_basic_type(ty).kind == 'TimerType'


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def sdl_to_asn1(sort: str):
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    '''
        Convert case insensitive type reference to the actual type as found
        in the ASN.1 datamodel
    '''
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    for asn1_type in types().keys():
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        if sort.replace('_', '-').lower() == asn1_type.lower():
            break
    else:
        raise TypeError('Type {} not found in ASN.1 model'.format(sort))
    return new_ref_type(asn1_type)


def node_filename(node):
    ''' Return the filename associated to the stream of this node '''
    parent = node
    while parent:
        try:
            return parent.getToken().getInputStream().fileName
        except AttributeError:
            parent = parent.getParent()
    return None


def token_stream(node):
    '''
        Return the token stream associated to a tree node
        It is set at the root of the tree by the parser
    '''
    parent = node
    while parent:
        try:
            return parent.token_stream
        except AttributeError:
            parent = parent.getParent()


def signals_in_system(ast):
    ''' Recursively find signal definitions in a nested SDL model '''
    all_signals = []
    for block in ast.blocks:
        all_signals.extend(signals_in_system(block))
    all_signals.extend(ast.signals)
    return all_signals


def find_process_declaration(ast, process_name):
    ''' Recursively search for a process declaration in a nested SDL model '''
    for block in ast.blocks:
        result = find_process_declaration(block, process_name)
        if result:
            return result
    try:
        for process in ast.processes:
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            if process.processName.lower() == process_name.lower():
                return process
            elif process.instance_of_name.lower() == process_name.lower():
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                return process
    except AttributeError:
        return None
    return None


def valid_output(scope):
    '''
        Yields the output, procedures, and operators names,
        that is all the elements that can be valid in an OUTPUT symbol
        (does not mean it IS valid - caller still has to check it)
    '''
    for out_sig in scope.output_signals:
        yield out_sig['name'].lower()
    for proc in scope.procedures:
        yield proc.inputString.lower()
    for special_op in SPECIAL_OPERATORS:
        yield special_op.lower()


def get_interfaces(ast, process_name):
    '''
        Search for the list of input and output signals (async PI/RI)
        and procedures (sync RI) of a process in a given top-level AST
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        process_name can be the name of a process type, in which case the
        interfaces can only be found by looking at an instance of the type
        that is actually connected in the system
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    '''
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    all_signals, async_signals, errors = [], [], set()
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    system = ast
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    # Move up to the system level, in case process is nested in a block
    # and not defined at root level as it is the case when it is referenced
    while hasattr(system, 'parent'):
        system = system.parent

    # If we are at AST level, check in all systems, otherwise in current one
    iterator = ast.systems if hasattr(ast, 'systems') else (system,)

    for system in iterator:
        all_signals.extend(signals_in_system(system))
        process_ref = find_process_declaration(system, process_name)
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        # Update process name with the name of the instance if we are parsing
        # a process type.
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        if process_ref:
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            process_name = process_ref.processName
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            # Go to the block where the process is defined
            process_parent = process_ref.parent
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            break
    else:
        if isinstance(ast, ogAST.Block):
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            process_parent = ast
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        else:
            raise TypeError('Process ' + process_name +
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                        ' is defined but not declared in a system')
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    # Find in and out signals names using the signalroutes
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    undeclared_signals = []
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    for each in process_parent.signalroutes:
        for route in each['routes']:
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            if route['source'] == process_name:
                direction = 'out'
            elif route['dest'] == process_name:
                direction = 'in'
            else:
                continue
            for sig_id in route['signals']:
                # Copy the signal to the result dict
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                try:
                    found, = [dict(sig) for sig in all_signals
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                              if sig['name'].lower() == sig_id.lower()]
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                    found['direction'] = direction
                    async_signals.append(found)
                except ValueError:
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                    undeclared_signals.append(sig_id)
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                except (KeyError, AttributeError) as err:
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                    # Exceptions raised if a signal is not defined, i.e. there
                    # if an empty signal entry in the list. This can happen
                    # if the name of the signal is a reserved keyword, such as
                    # "stop", "reset"...
                    errors.add('Check the names of your signals against'
                               ' reserved keywords')
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    if undeclared_signals:
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        errors.add('Missing declaration for signal(s) {}'
                   .format(', '.join(undeclared_signals)))
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    return async_signals, system.procedures, errors
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def get_input_string(root):
    ''' Return the input string of a tree node '''
    return token_stream(root).toString(root.getTokenStartIndex(),
            root.getTokenStopIndex())


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def error(root, msg: str) -> str:
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    ''' Return an error message '''
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    return '{} - "{}"'.format(msg, get_input_string(root))
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def warning(root, msg: str) -> str:
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    ''' Return a warning message '''
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    return '{} - "{}"'.format(msg, get_input_string(root))
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def tmp() -> int:
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    ''' Return a temporary variable name '''
    global TMPVAR
    varname = TMPVAR
    TMPVAR += 1
    return varname


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def get_state_list(process_root):
    ''' Return the list of states of a process '''
    # 1) get all STATE statements
    states = (child for child in process_root.getChildren()
            if child.type == lexer.STATE)
    # 2) keep only the ones containing a STATELIST token (i.e. no ASTERISK)
    relevant = (child for state in states for child in state.getChildren()
            if child.type == lexer.STATELIST)
    # 3) extract the state list from each of them
    state_list = [s.text.lower() for r in relevant for s in r.getChildren()]
    # state_list.append('START')
    # 4) create a set to remove duplicates
    return set(state_list)


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def find_basic_type(a_type, pool=None):
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    ''' Return the ASN.1 basic type of a_type '''
    basic_type = a_type or UNKNOWN_TYPE
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    pool = pool or types()
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    while basic_type.kind == 'ReferenceType':
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        Min = getattr(basic_type, "Min", None)
        Max = getattr(basic_type, "Max", None)

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        # Find type with proper case in the data view
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        for typename in pool.keys():
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            if typename.lower() == basic_type.ReferencedTypeName.lower():
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                basic_type = pool[typename].type
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                if Min is not None and Max is not None \
                        and is_numeric(basic_type):
                    # Subtypes may have defined subranges
                    new_type = type('Subtype',  basic_type.__bases__,
                            dict (basic_type.__dict__))
                    new_type.Min = Min
                    new_type.Max = Max
                    basic_type = new_type
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                break
        else:
            raise TypeError('Type "' + type_name(basic_type) +
                            '" was not found in Dataview')
    return basic_type


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def signature(name, context):
    ''' Return the signature of a procecure/output/operator '''
    name = name.lower()
    if name in SPECIAL_OPERATORS:
        return SPECIAL_OPERATORS[name]
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    for out_sig in context.output_signals:
        if out_sig['name'].lower() == name:
            signature = []
            if out_sig.get('type'):
                # output signals: one single parameter
                signature.append({
                    'type': out_sig.get('type'),
                    'name': out_sig.get('param_name' or ''),
                    'direction': 'in',
                })
            return signature

    for inner_proc in context.procedures:
        proc_name = inner_proc.inputString
        if proc_name.lower() == name:
            return inner_proc.fpar

    raise AttributeError('Operator/output/procedure not found: ' + name)


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def check_call(name, params, context):
    ''' Check the parameter types of a procedure/output/operator call,
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        returning the type of its result (value-returning functions only,
        i.e not signal sending '''
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    # Special case for write/writeln functions
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    if name.lower() in ('write', 'writeln'):
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        def check_one_param(p, name):
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            p_ty = p.exprType
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            if is_numeric(p_ty) or is_boolean(p_ty) or is_string(p_ty) or \
                    is_enumerated(p_ty):
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                return
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            raise TypeError('Type {} not supported in call to {}'.
                format(type_name(p.exprType), name))
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        for p in params:
            if not isinstance(p, ogAST.PrimConditional):
                check_one_param(p, name)
            else:
                for each in (p.value['then'], p.value['else']):
                    check_one_param(each, name)
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                # check that both "then" and "else" are of a similar type
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                # (string, int, or enumerated), this is necessary for the
                # backends
                if (is_numeric(p.value['then'].exprType) ==
                   is_numeric(p.value['else'].exprType) == True) or \
                   (is_boolean(p.value['then'].exprType) ==
                   is_boolean(p.value['else'].exprType) == True) or \
                   (is_string(p.value['then'].exprType) ==
                   is_string(p.value['else'].exprType) == True) or \
                   (is_enumerated(p.value['then'].exprType) ==
                   is_enumerated(p.value['else'].exprType) == True):
                      p.exprType = p.value['then'].exprType
                else:
                    raise TypeError('{}: both options must have the type type.'
                                    .format(name))
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        return UNKNOWN_TYPE
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    # Special case for "exist" function
    elif name == 'exist':
        # "exist" shall return true if an optional SEQUENCE field is present
        # We have to check that the parameter is actually an optional field
        # So we check first that there is only one param
        # then that this is a PrimSelector (at least "a.b")
        # Then we analyse from the variable to the last field if that is
        # actually an optional field, using the ASN.1 data model
        if len(params) != 1:
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            raise TypeError('"exist" operator takes only one parameter')
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        param, = params
        if not isinstance(param, ogAST.PrimSelector):
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            raise TypeError('"exist" operator only works on optional fields')
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        left = param.value[0] # Can be a variable or another PrimSelector
        field_list = [param.value[1]] # string of the field name
        while isinstance(left, ogAST.PrimSelector):
            field_list.append(left.value[1])
            left = left.value[0]
        sort = find_basic_type(left.exprType)  # must have Children
        if sort.kind == 'UnknownType':
            raise TypeError('Variable not found in call to "exist" operator')
        # At this point we know that the expression is correct, so we will
        # not miss any child in the dataview. We can follow the children
        # in the ASN.1 model until we reach the last one, which shall be
        # optional
        while field_list:
            child_name = field_list.pop().replace('_', '-').lower()
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            for child in sort.Children.keys():
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                if child.lower() == child_name:
                    break
            optional = sort.Children[child].Optional
            sort = sort.Children[child].type
            if sort.kind == 'ReferenceType':
                sort = find_basic_type (sort)
        # At this point we should have found the last type
        if optional != "True":
            raise TypeError('Field is not optional in call to "exist"')
        return type('Exist', (object,), {
            'kind': 'BooleanType'
        })
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    elif name == 'val':
        # val converts a positive number to a enumeration literal
        # the first parameter is the number and the second is the type name
        # of the enumeration. It is equivalent in Ada to EnumType'Val(number)
        if len(params) != 2:
            raise TypeError(name + " takes 2 parameters: number, type")
        variable, target_type = params
        variable_sort = find_basic_type(variable.exprType)
        if variable_sort.kind != 'IntegerType':
            raise TypeError(name + ': First parameter is not an number')
        sort_name = target_type.value[0]  #  raw string of the type to cast
        for sort in types().keys():
            if sort.lower().replace('-', '_') == \
                    sort_name.lower().replace('-', '_'):
                break
        else:
            raise TypeError(name + ': type ' + sort_name + 'not found')
        # we could check if the range of the number is compatible with the
        # number of values...
        return_type = types()[sort].type
        return return_type
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    elif name in ('to_selector', 'to_enum'):
        if len(params) != 2:
            raise TypeError(name + " takes 2 parameters: variable, type")
        variable, target_type = params
        variable_sort = find_basic_type(variable.exprType)
        if variable_sort.kind == 'UnknownType':
            raise TypeError(name + ': variable not found (parameter 1)')
        if variable_sort.kind != 'EnumeratedType':
            raise TypeError(name + ': First parameter is not an enumerated')
        sort_name = target_type.value[0]  #  raw string of the type to cast
        for sort in types().keys():
            if sort.lower().replace('-', '_') == \
                    sort_name.lower().replace('-', '_'):
                break
        else:
            raise TypeError(name + ': type ' + sort_name + 'not found')
        # check that the list of enumerants are identical. unfortunately we
        # cannot check the ordering, as it is an unordered dict
        if name == 'to_selector':
            return_type = types()[sort + '-selection'].type
        else:
            return_type = types()[sort].type
        if return_type.kind != 'EnumeratedType':
            raise TypeError(name + ': Second parameter is incorrect')
        return_type_keys = return_type.EnumValues.keys()
        variable_sort_keys = variable_sort.EnumValues.keys()
        if return_type_keys != variable_sort_keys:
            raise TypeError(name + ': Enumerated type are not equivalent')
        return return_type

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    # (1) Find the signature of the function
    # signature will hold the list of parameters for the function
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    sign = signature(name, context)
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    # (2) Check that the number of given parameters matches the signature
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    if len(sign) != len(params):
        raise TypeError('Expected {} arguments in call to {} ({} received)'.
            format(len(sign), name, len(params)))
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    # (3) Check each individual parameter type
    for idx, param in enumerate(params):
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        warnings = []
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        expr               = ogAST.ExprAssign()
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        expr.left          = ogAST.PrimVariable(debugLine=lineno())
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        expr.left.exprType = sign[idx]['type']
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        expr.right         = param
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        try:
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            basic_left  = find_basic_type(expr.left.exprType)
            basic_right = find_basic_type(expr.right.exprType)
            #print getattr(basic_left, "Min", 0), getattr(basic_right, "Min", 0)
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            warnings.extend(fix_expression_types(expr, context))
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            params[idx] = expr.right
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        except TypeError as err:
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            expected = type_name(sign[idx]['type'])
            received = type_name(expr.right.exprType)
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            raise TypeError('In call to {}: Type of parameter {} is incorrect'
                            ' ({}) - {}'
                            .format(name, idx+1, received, str(err)))
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        if (warnings):
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            expected = type_name(sign[idx]['type'])
            received = type_name(expr.right.exprType)
            raise Warning('Expected type {} in call to {} ({} received)'.
                format(expected, name, received))
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        if sign[idx].get('direction') != 'in' \
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                and not isinstance(expr.right, ogAST.PrimVariable):
            raise TypeError('OUT parameter "{}" is not a variable'
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                .format(expr.right.inputString))
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    # (4) Compute the type of the result
    param_btys = [find_basic_type(p.exprType) for p in params]
    if name == 'abs':
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        # The implementation of abs in *all* programming languages returns
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        # a type that is the same as the type of the parameter. The returned
        # value is *not* unsigned. abs(integer'Min) returns a NEGATIVE number
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        # this is an issue in an assign statement, if the recipient is
        # unsigned .. A cast is necessary if the parameter of abs is negative
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        Min = float(param_btys[0].Min)
        Max = float(param_btys[0].Max)
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        if params[0].exprType.kind != 'ReferenceType' and Min == Max:
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            # if param is a raw number, return a positive range
            # otherwise return the same type as the variable
            return type('Universal_Integer', (param_btys[0],), {
               'Min': str(max(Min, 0)),
               'Max': str(max(Max, 0))
           })
        else:
            return type('Abs', (param_btys[0],), {})
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    elif name == 'ceil':
        return type('Ceil', (REAL,), {
            'Min': str(math.ceil(float(param_btys[0].Min))),
            'Max': str(math.ceil(float(param_btys[0].Max)))
        })

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    elif name == 'cos':
        return type('Cos', (REAL,), {
            'Min': str(-1.0),
            'Max': str(1.0)
        })

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    elif name == 'fix':
        return type('Fix', (INTEGER,), {
            'Min': param_btys[0].Min,
            'Max': param_btys[0].Max
        })

    elif name == 'float':
        return type('Float', (REAL,), {
            'Min': param_btys[0].Min,
            'Max': param_btys[0].Max
        })

    elif name == 'floor':
        return type('Floor', (REAL,), {
            'Min': str(math.floor(float(param_btys[0].Min))),
            'Max': str(math.floor(float(param_btys[0].Max)))
        })

    elif name == 'length':
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        return type('Length', (INT32,), {
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            'Min': param_btys[0].Min,
            'Max': param_btys[0].Max
        })

    elif name == 'num':
        enum_values = [int(each.IntValue)
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                       for each in param_btys[0].EnumValues.values()]
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        return type('Num', (INTEGER,), {
            'Min': str(min(enum_values)),
            'Max': str(max(enum_values))
        })

    elif name == 'power':
        return type('Power', (param_btys[0],), {
            'Min': str(pow(float(param_btys[0].Min),
                           float(param_btys[1].Min))),
            'Max': str(pow(float(param_btys[0].Max),
                           float(param_btys[1].Max)))
        })

    elif name == 'present':
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        p, = params
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        sort = type_name (p.exprType) + "-selection"
        return types()[sort].type
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    # choice_to_int: returns an integer corresponding to either the currently
    # selected choice value (e.g. foo in CHOICE { foo INTEGER (..), ... } when
    # foo is the current choice). or a default, user-defined value if the
    # current choice is not numerical. The first parameter is an instance of
    # a CHOICE type, and the second parameter is the default value.
    elif name == 'choice_to_int':
        p1, _ = params
        #sort = type_name (p1.exprType)
        return type('choice_to_int', (INTEGER,), {})

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    elif name == 'round':
        return type('Round', (REAL,), {
            'Min': str(round(float(param_btys[0].Min))),
            'Max': str(round(float(param_btys[0].Max)))
        })

    elif name == 'sin':
        return type('Sin', (REAL,), {
            'Min': str(-1.0),
            'Max': str(1.0)
        })

    elif name == 'sqrt':
        return type('Sqrt', (REAL,), {
            'Min': str(0.0),
            'Max': str(math.sqrt(float(param_btys[0].Max)))
        })

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    elif name == 'trunc':
        return type('Trunc', (REAL,), {
            'Min': str(math.trunc(float(param_btys[0].Min))),
            'Max': str(math.trunc(float(param_btys[0].Max)))
        })

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    else:
        # check if procedure is declared to return a type
        for inner_proc in context.procedures:
            proc_name = inner_proc.inputString
            if proc_name.lower() == name.lower() and inner_proc.return_type:
                return inner_proc.return_type

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    return UNKNOWN_TYPE

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def check_range(typeref, type_to_check):
    ''' Verify the that the Min/Max bounds of two types are compatible
        Called to test that assignments are withing allowed range
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        both types assumed to be basic types
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    '''
    try:
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        min1, max1 = float(type_to_check.Min), float(type_to_check.Max)
        min2, max2 = float(typeref.Min), float(typeref.Max)
        error   = min1 > max2 or max1 < min2
        warning = min1 < min2 or max1 > max2
        if error:
            raise TypeError(
                    'Expression in range {} .. {} is outside range {} .. {}'
                    .format(type_to_check.Min, type_to_check.Max,
                            typeref.Min, typeref.Max))
        elif warning:
            raise Warning('Expression in range {} .. {}, '
                          'could be outside expected range {} .. {}'
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                    .format(type_to_check.Min, type_to_check.Max,
                            typeref.Min, typeref.Max))
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    except (AttributeError, ValueError):
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        raise TypeError('Missing range')


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def fix_append_expression_type(expr, expected_type):
    ''' In an Append expression, all components must be of the same type,
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        which is the type expected by the user of the append, for example
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        the left part of an assign expression.
        We must recursively fix the Append type, in case we have a//b//c
        that is handled as (a//b)//c
        Inputs:
           expr: the append expression (possibly recursive)
           expected_type : the type to assign to the expression
    '''
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    #print "[DEBUG] Fix append expression: ", expr.inputString
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    def rec_append(inner_expr, set_type):
        for each in (inner_expr.left, inner_expr.right):
            if isinstance(each, ogAST.ExprAppend):
                rec_append(each, set_type)
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            if each.exprType == UNKNOWN_TYPE:
                # eg. if the side is a PrimConditional (ternary)
                each.exprType = set_type
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            each.expected_type = set_type
    rec_append(expr, expected_type)
    expr.exprType      = expected_type
    expr.expected_type = expected_type


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def check_type_compatibility(primary, type_ref, context):
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    '''
        Check if an ogAST.Primary (raw value, enumerated, ASN.1 Value...)
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        is compatible with a given type (type_ref is an ASN1Scc type)
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        Possibly returns a list of warnings; can raises TypeError
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    '''
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    warnings = []    # function returns a list of warnings
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    assert type_ref is not None
    if type_ref is UNKNOWN_TYPE:
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        #print traceback.print_stack()
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        raise TypeError('Type reference is unknown')
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    basic_type = find_basic_type(type_ref)
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    # watch out: type_ref may be a subtype of basic_type with different
    # min/max constraint, in particular in case of substrings
    if type_ref.__name__ == 'SubStr':
        minR, maxR = type_ref.Min, type_ref.Max
    else:
        try:
            minR, maxR = basic_type.Min, basic_type.Max
        except AttributeError:
            # some types do not have Min/Max ranges
            pass
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    if (isinstance(primary, ogAST.PrimEnumeratedValue)
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            and basic_type.kind.endswith('EnumeratedType')):
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        # If type ref is an enumeration, check that the value is valid
        # Note, when using the "present" operator of a CHOICE type, the
        # resulting value is actually an EnumeratedType
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        enumerant = primary.inputString.replace('_', '-').lower()
        for each in basic_type.EnumValues.keys():
            if each.lower() == enumerant:
                # Found -> all OK
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                return warnings
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        else:
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            err = ('Value "' + primary.inputString +
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                   '" not in this enumeration: ' +
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                   str(basic_type.EnumValues.keys()))
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            raise TypeError(err)
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    elif isinstance(primary, ogAST.PrimConditional):
        then_expr = primary.value['then']
        else_expr = primary.value['else']

        for expr in (then_expr, else_expr):
            if expr.is_raw:
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                warnings.extend(check_type_compatibility(expr,
                                                         type_ref,
                                                         context))
        return warnings
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    elif isinstance(primary, (ogAST.PrimVariable, ogAST.PrimSelector)):
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        try:
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            warnings.extend(compare_types(primary.exprType, type_ref))
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        except TypeError as err:
            raise TypeError('{expr} should be of type {ty} - {err}'
                            .format(expr=primary.inputString,
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                                    ty=type_name(type_ref),
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                                    err=str(err)))
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        return warnings
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    elif isinstance(primary, (ogAST.PrimInteger, ogAST.ExprMod)) \
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            and (is_integer(type_ref) or type_ref == NUMERICAL):
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        return warnings
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    elif isinstance(primary, ogAST.PrimReal) \
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            and (is_real(type_ref) or type_ref == NUMERICAL):
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        return warnings
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    elif isinstance(primary, ogAST.ExprNeg):
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        warnings.extend(check_type_compatibility(primary.expr,
                                                 type_ref,
                                                 context))
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    elif isinstance(primary, ogAST.PrimBoolean) and is_boolean(type_ref):
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        return warnings
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    elif isinstance(primary, ogAST.PrimNull) and is_null(type_ref):
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        return warnings
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    elif isinstance(primary, ogAST.PrimEmptyString):
        # Empty strings ("{ }") can be used for arrays and empty records
        if basic_type.kind == 'SequenceOfType':
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            if int(minR) == 0:
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                return warnings
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            else:
                raise TypeError('SEQUENCE OF has a minimum size of '
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                                + minR + ')')
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        elif basic_type.kind == 'SequenceType':
            if len(basic_type.Children.keys()) > 0:
                raise TypeError('SEQUENCE is not empty, wrong "{}" syntax')
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        else:
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            raise TypeError('Not a type compatible with empty string syntax')
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    elif isinstance(primary, ogAST.PrimSequenceOf) \
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            and basic_type.kind == 'SequenceOfType':
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        #  left is a sequenceof, but we check it is not an append
        if type_ref.__name__ not in ('Apnd') and \
                (len(primary.value) < int(minR) or
                len(primary.value) > int(maxR)):
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            #print traceback.print_stack()
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            raise TypeError(str(len(primary.value)) +
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                      ' element(s) in SEQUENCE OF, while constraint is [' +
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                      str(minR) + ' .. ' + str(maxR) + ']')
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        for elem in primary.value:
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            warnings.extend(check_type_compatibility(elem,
                                                     basic_type.type,
                                                     context))
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        if not hasattr(primary, 'expected_type') \
               and type_ref.__name__ not in ('Apnd', 'SubStr'):
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            primary.expected_type = type_ref
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        return warnings
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    elif isinstance(primary, ogAST.PrimSequence) \
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            and basic_type.kind == 'SequenceType':
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        user_nb_elem = len(primary.value.keys())
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        type_nb_elem = len(basic_type.Children.keys())
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        optional_fields = [field.lower().replace('-', '_')
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                           for field, val in basic_type.Children.items()
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                           if val.Optional == 'True']
        user_fields = [field.lower() for field in primary.value.keys()]
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        for field, fd_data in basic_type.Children.items():
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            ufield = field.replace('-', '_')
            if ufield.lower() not in optional_fields \
                    and ufield.lower() not in user_fields:
                raise TypeError('Missing mandatory field {field} in SEQUENCE'
                                ' of type {t1} '
                                .format(field=ufield,
                                        t1=type_name(type_ref)))