AdaGenerator.py 89.6 KB
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#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

"""
    OpenGEODE - A tiny SDL Editor for TASTE

    This module generates Ada code from SDL process models.
    The Ada code is compliant with the TASTE interfaces, and is
    using the ASN.1 "Space-Certified" compiler for data type definition.
    (See TASTE documentation for more information)

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    The design is flexible and can be used as basis for other backends.
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    Entry point:
    The AST of the model that is parsed is described in ogAST.py

    A Visitor Pattern using Python's "singledispatch" mechanism is used
    to go through the AST and generate code for each SDL construct.

    There is a single function called "generate", decorated with the
    singledispatch mechanism, that needs to be called to generate the code
    of any AST element.

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    The generate function returns two values: "code" and "local_decl",
    containing a set of statements and a set of local variables
    (that can be later placed anywhere in the code).
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    Expressions (all classes derived from ogAST.Expression) are generated
    using the "expression" visitor (singledispatch set of function).

    Expressions return three values: "code", "ada_string" and "local_decl".
    The "ada_string" value is the usable string that corresponds
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    to the result of the expression evaluation.

    For example, take the SDL statement "OUTPUT hello(a+5)"

    This results (in TASTE terminology) in calling the required interface
    called "hello" and passing a parameter of an ASN.1 type (say MyInteger).
    The parameter is always passed by reference.

    It is therefore necessary to build a temporary variable to hold the result
    of the "a+5" expression.

    In this example, the "generate" function will return:
    local_decl = ["tmp01 : MyInteger;"]
    (The template backend can then place it wherever appropriate)

    and code = ["tmp01 := a + 5;", "hello(tmp01);"]
    (The template will then do a '\n'.join(code) - and add indents, etc.)

    To know about "tmp01" and generate the code "hello(tmp01);",
    the function will recursively call "generate" and
    pass a+5 as parameter. The call will return the tuple:

    local_decl = ["tmp01 : MyInteger;"]
    code = ["tmp01 := a + 5;"]
    ada_string = "tmp01"

    This design allows to have any level of complexity in the embedded
    expression in a way that is easy to handle (adding constructs with
    this pattern is straightforward, once the generate function for each AST
    entry is properly implemented).

    Copyright (c) 2012-2013 European Space Agency

    Designed and implemented by Maxime Perrotin

    Contact: maxime.perrotin@esa.int
"""


import logging
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import traceback
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from singledispatch import singledispatch

import ogAST
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import Helper
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LOG = logging.getLogger(__name__)

__all__ = ['generate']

# reference to the ASN.1 Data view and to the visible variables (in scope)
TYPES = None
VARIABLES = {}
LOCAL_VAR = {}
# List of output signals and procedures
OUT_SIGNALS = []
PROCEDURES = []

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# Specify that the target is a shared library
SHARED_LIB = False

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UNICODE_SEP = u'\u00dc'
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LPREFIX = u'l_'
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@singledispatch
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def generate(*args, **kwargs):
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    ''' Generate the code for an item of the AST '''
    raise TypeError('[AdaGenerator] Unsupported AST construct')
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    return [], []
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# Processing of the AST
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@generate.register(ogAST.Process)
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def _process(process, simu=False, **kwargs):
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    ''' Generate the code for a complete process (AST Top level) '''
    process_name = process.processName
    global TYPES
    TYPES = process.dataview
    del OUT_SIGNALS[:]
    del PROCEDURES[:]
    OUT_SIGNALS.extend(process.output_signals)
    PROCEDURES.extend(process.procedures)
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    global SHARED_LIB
    if simu:
        SHARED_LIB = True
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    # When building a shared library (with simu=True), generate a "mini-cv"
    # for aadl2glueC to create the code interfacing with asn1scc
    minicv = ['-- Automatically generated by OpenGEODE - do NOT modify!']
    def aadl_template(sp_name, io_param, pi_or_ri):
        ''' AADL mini-cv code in case of shared library
            sp_name  : name of the PI or RI
            io_param : list of (param_name, type_name, direction)
            pi_or_ri : string "PI" or "RI" depending on the direction
            return a string
        '''
        res = []
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        if not io_param:
            LOG.info('Parameterless interface "{}" will not appear in the'
                     ' AADL file but will be handled directly by the GUI'
                     .format(sp_name))
            return ''
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        # In case of shared library, generate the AADL "mini-cv" code
        res.append('SUBPROGRAM {}'.format(sp_name))
        if io_param:
            res.append('FEATURES')
            for param_name, sort, direction in io_param:
                res.append('    {pname}: {io} PARAMETER DataView::{sort} '
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                          '{{encoding=>Native;}};'.format(pname=param_name,
                                                          sort=sort,
                                                          io=direction))
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        res.append('END {};\n'.format(sp_name))
        res.append('SUBPROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION {}.GUI_{}'
                      .format(sp_name, pi_or_ri))
        res.append('PROPERTIES')
        res.append('    FV_Name => "{}";'.format(process_name))
        res.append('    Source_Language => GUI_{};'.format(pi_or_ri))
        res.append('END {}.GUI_{};\n'.format(sp_name, pi_or_ri))
        return '\n'.join(res)

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    # bash script to simulate the system (TEMPORARY)
    simu_script = '''#!/bin/bash -e
opengeode {pr}.pr --shared
asn1.exe -Ada dataview-uniq.asn -typePrefix asn1Scc -equal
asn1.exe -c dataview-uniq.asn -typePrefix asn1Scc -equal
gnatmake -gnat2012 -c *.adb
gnatbind -n -Llib{pr} {pr}
gnatmake -c -gnat2012 b~{pr}.adb
gcc -shared -fPIC -o lib{pr}.so b~{pr}.o {pr}.o taste_dataview.o adaasn1rtl.o -lgnat
rm -rf simu
mkdir -p simu
asn2aadlPlus dataview-uniq.asn simu/DataView.aadl
cp lib{pr}.so dataview-uniq.asn *.pr simu
mv *.aadl simu
cd simu
aadl2glueC DataView.aadl {pr}_interface.aadl
asn2dataModel -toPython dataview-uniq.asn
make -f Makefile.python
echo "errCodes=$(taste-asn1-errCodes ./dataview-uniq.h)" >>datamodel.py
LD_LIBRARY_PATH=. taste-gui -l
'''.format(pr=process_name)

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    LOG.info('Generating Ada code for process ' + str(process_name))

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    # In case model has nested states, flatten everything
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    Helper.flatten(process, sep=UNICODE_SEP)
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    # Make an maping {input: {state: transition...}} in order to easily
    # generate the lookup tables for the state machine runtime
    mapping = Helper.map_input_state(process)

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    VARIABLES.update(process.variables)

    # Generate the code to declare process-level variables
    process_level_decl = []
    for var_name, (var_type, def_value) in process.variables.viewitems():
        if def_value:
            # Expression must be a ground expression, i.e. must not
            # require temporary variable to store computed result
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            dst, dstr, dlocal = expression(def_value)
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            varbty = find_basic_type(var_type)
            if varbty.kind in ('SequenceOfType', 'OctetStringType'):
                dstr = array_content(def_value, dstr, varbty)
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            assert not dst and not dlocal, 'DCL: Expecting a ground expression'
        process_level_decl.append(
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                        u'{prefix}{n} : aliased {sort}{default};'
                        .format(prefix=LPREFIX, n=var_name,
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                                sort=type_name(var_type),
                                default=u' := ' + dstr if def_value else u''))
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    # Add the process states list to the process-level variables
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    statelist = ', '.join(name for name in process.mapping.iterkeys()
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                             if not name.endswith(u'START')) or 'No_State'
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    if statelist:
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        states_decl = u'type States is ({});'.format(statelist)
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        process_level_decl.append(states_decl)
        process_level_decl.append('state : states;')
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    for name, val in process.mapping.viewitems():
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        if name.endswith(u'START') and name != u'START':
            process_level_decl.append(u'{name} : constant := {val};'
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                                      .format(name=name, val=str(val)))

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    # Add the declaration of the runTransition procedure, if needed
    if process.transitions:
        process_level_decl.append('procedure runTransition(Id: Integer);')
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    # Generate the code of the start transition (if process not empty)
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    start_transition = ['begin',
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                        'runTransition(0);'] if process.transitions else []
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    # Generate the TASTE template
    try:
        asn1_modules = '\n'.join(['with {dv};\nuse {dv};'.format(
            dv=dv.replace('-', '_'))
            for dv in process.asn1Modules])
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        asn1_modules += '\nwith adaasn1rtl;\nuse adaasn1rtl;'
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    except TypeError:
        asn1_modules = '--  No ASN.1 data types are used in this model'
    taste_template = ['''\
-- This file was generated automatically: DO NOT MODIFY IT !

with System.IO;
use System.IO;

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with Ada.Unchecked_Conversion;
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with Ada.Numerics.Generic_Elementary_Functions;
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{dataview}

with Interfaces;
use Interfaces;
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{C}
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package body {process_name} is'''.format(process_name=process_name,
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                                         dataview=asn1_modules,
                                         C='with Interfaces.C.Strings;\n'
                                           'use Interfaces.C.Strings;'
                                            if simu else '')]
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    # Generate the source file (.ads) header
    ads_template = ['''\
-- This file was generated automatically: DO NOT MODIFY IT !

{dataview}
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{C}
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package {process_name} is'''.format(process_name=process_name,
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                                    dataview=asn1_modules,
                                    C='with Interfaces.C.Strings;\n'
                                      'use Interfaces.C.Strings;'
                                        if simu else '')]
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    dll_api = []
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    if simu:
        ads_template.append('--  DLL Interface')
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        dll_api.append('-- DLL Interface to remotely change internal data')
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        # Add function allowing to trace current state as a string
        process_level_decl.append("function get_state return chars_ptr "
                                  "is (New_String(states'Image(state))) "
                                  "with Export, Convention => C, "
                                  'Link_Name => "{}_state";'
                                  .format(process_name))
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        set_state_decl = "procedure set_state(new_state: chars_ptr)"
        ads_template.append("{};".format(set_state_decl))
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        ads_template.append('pragma export(C, set_state, "_set_state");')
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        dll_api.append("{} is".format(set_state_decl))
        dll_api.append("begin")
        dll_api.append("state := States'Value(Value(new_state));")
        dll_api.append("end set_state;")
        dll_api.append("")

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        # Functions to get gobal variables (length and value)
        for var_name, (var_type, _) in process.variables.viewitems():
            # Getters for local variables
            process_level_decl.append("function l_{name}_size return integer "
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                                      "is ({prefix}{name}'Size/8) with Export,"
                                      " Convention => C,"
                                      ' Link_Name => "{name}_size";'
                                      .format(prefix=LPREFIX, name=var_name))
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            process_level_decl.append("function l_{name}_value"
                                      " return access {sort} "
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                                      "is ({prefix}{name}'access) with Export,"
                                      " Convention => C,"
                                      ' Link_Name => "{name}_value";'
                                      .format(prefix=LPREFIX, name=var_name,
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                                              sort=type_name(var_type)))
            # Setters for local variables
            setter_decl = "procedure dll_set_l_{name}(value: access {sort})"\
                          .format(name=var_name, sort=type_name(var_type))
            ads_template.append('{};'.format(setter_decl))
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            ads_template.append('pragma export(C, dll_set_l_{name},'
                                ' "_set_{name}");'.format(name=var_name))
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            dll_api.append('{} is'.format(setter_decl))
            dll_api.append('begin')
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            dll_api.append('{}{} := value.all;'.format(LPREFIX, var_name))
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            dll_api.append('end dll_set_l_{};'.format(var_name))
            dll_api.append('')


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    # Generate the the code of the procedures
    inner_procedures_code = []
    for proc in process.content.inner_procedures:
        proc_code, proc_local = generate(proc)
        process_level_decl.extend(proc_local)
        inner_procedures_code.extend(proc_code)

    # Generate the code for the process-level variable declarations
    taste_template.extend(process_level_decl)

    # Add the code of the procedures definitions
    taste_template.extend(inner_procedures_code)

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    # Add the code of the DLL interface
    taste_template.extend(dll_api)

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    # Generate the code for each input signal (provided interface) and timers
    for signal in process.input_signals + [
                        {'name': timer.lower()} for timer in process.timers]:
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        if signal.get('name', u'START') == u'START':
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            continue
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        pi_header = u'procedure {sig_name}'.format(sig_name=signal['name'])
        param_name = signal.get('param_name') \
                                or u'{}_param'.format(signal['name'])
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        # Add (optional) PI parameter (only one is possible in TASTE PI)
        if 'type' in signal:
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            typename = type_name(signal['type'])
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            pi_header += u'({pName}: access {sort})'.format(
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                                        pName=param_name, sort=typename)
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        # Add declaration of the provided interface in the .ads file
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        ads_template.append(u'--  Provided interface "' + signal['name'] + '"')
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        ads_template.append(pi_header + ';')
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        ads_template.append(u'pragma export(C, {name}, "{proc}_{name}");'
                             .format(name=signal['name'], proc=process_name))

        if simu:
            # Generate code for the mini-cv template
            params = [(param_name, type_name(signal['type'], use_prefix=False),
                      'IN')] if 'type' in signal else []
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            minicv.append(aadl_template(signal['name'], params, 'RI'))
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        pi_header += ' is'
        taste_template.append(pi_header)
        taste_template.append('begin')
        taste_template.append('case state is')
        for state in process.mapping.viewkeys():
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            if state.endswith(u'START'):
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                continue
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            taste_template.append(u'when {state} =>'.format(state=state))
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            input_def = mapping[signal['name']].get(state)
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            # Check for nested states to call optional exit procedure
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            sep = UNICODE_SEP
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            state_tree = state.split(sep)
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            context = process
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            exitlist = []
            current = ''
            trans = input_def and process.transitions[input_def.transition_id]
            while state_tree:
                current = current + state_tree.pop(0)
                for comp in context.composite_states:
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                    if current.lower() == comp.statename.lower():
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                        if comp.exit_procedure:
                            exitlist.append(current)
                        context = comp
                        current = current + sep
                        break
            for each in reversed(exitlist):
                if trans and all(each.startswith(trans_st)
                                 for trans_st in trans.possible_states):
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                    taste_template.append(u'p{sep}{ref}{sep}exit;'
                                          .format(ref=each, sep=sep))
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            if input_def:
                for inp in input_def.parameters:
                    # Assign the (optional and unique) parameter
                    # to the corresponding process variable
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                    taste_template.append(u'{pre}{inp} := {tInp}.all;'
                                          .format(pre=LPREFIX,
                                                  inp=inp,
                                                  tInp=param_name))
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                # Execute the correponding transition
                if input_def.transition:
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                    taste_template.append(u'runTransition({idx});'.format(
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                        idx=input_def.transition_id))
                else:
                    taste_template.append('null;')
            else:
                taste_template.append('null;')
        taste_template.append('when others =>')
        taste_template.append('null;')
        taste_template.append('end case;')
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        taste_template.append(u'end {};'.format(signal['name']))
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        taste_template.append('\n')

    # for the .ads file, generate the declaration of the required interfaces
    # output signals are the asynchronous RI - only one parameter
    for signal in process.output_signals:
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        param_name = signal.get('param_name') \
                                or u'{}_param'.format(signal['name'])
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        # Add (optional) RI parameter
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        param_spec = '' if not simu else "(tm: chars_ptr)"
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        if 'type' in signal:
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            typename = type_name(signal['type'])
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            param_spec = u'({pName}: access {sort}{shared})' \
                         .format(pName=param_name,
                                 sort=typename,
                                 shared=u'; Size: Integer'
                                        if SHARED_LIB else '')
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        ads_template.append(u'--  Required interface "' + signal['name'] + '"')
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        if simu:
            # When generating a shared library, we need a callback mechanism
            ads_template.append(u'type {}_T is access procedure{};'
                                .format(signal['name'], param_spec))
            ads_template.append('pragma Convention(Convention => C,'
                                ' Entity => {}_T);'.format(signal['name']))
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            ads_template.append('{sig} : {sig}_T;'
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                                .format(sig=signal['name']))
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            ads_template.append('procedure Register_{sig}(Callback: {sig}_T);'
                                .format(sig=signal['name']))
            ads_template.append('pragma Export(C, Register_{sig},'
                                ' "register_{sig}");'
                                .format(sig=signal['name']))
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            # Generate code for the mini-cv template
            params = [(param_name, type_name(signal['type'], use_prefix=False),
                      'IN')] if 'type' in signal else []
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            minicv.append(aadl_template(signal['name'], params, 'PI'))
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            taste_template.append('procedure Register_{sig}'
                                  '(Callback:{sig}_T) is'
                                  .format(sig=signal['name']))
            taste_template.append('begin')
            taste_template.append('{} := Callback;'.format(signal['name']))
            taste_template.append('end Register_{};'.format(signal['name']))
            taste_template.append('')
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        else:
            ads_template.append(u'procedure {}{};'
                                .format(signal['name'], param_spec))
            ads_template.append(u'pragma import(C, {sig}, "{proc}_RI_{sig}");'
                                .format(sig=signal['name'], proc=process_name))
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    # for the .ads file, generate the declaration of the external procedures
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    for proc in (proc for proc in process.procedures if proc.external):
        ri_header = u'procedure {sig_name}'.format(sig_name=proc.inputString)
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        params = []
        for param in proc.fpar:
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            typename = type_name(param['type'])
            params.append(u'{par[name]}: access {sort}'
                          .format(par=param,
                                  sort=typename))
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        if params:
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            ri_header += u'(' + u';'.join(params) + ')'
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        ads_template.append(
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                        u'--  Sync required interface "' + proc.inputString)
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        ads_template.append(ri_header + u';')
        ads_template.append(u'pragma import(C, {sig}, "{proc}_RI_{sig}");'
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                .format(sig=proc.inputString, proc=process_name))

    # for the .ads file, generate the declaration of timers set/reset functions
    for timer in process.timers:
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        ads_template.append(u'--  Timer {} SET and RESET functions'
                            .format(timer))
        if simu:
            # Declare callback registration for the SET and RESET functions
            ads_template.append(u'type SET_{}_T is access procedure'
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                                 '(name: chars_ptr; duration: Integer);'
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                                .format(timer))
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            ads_template.append(u'type RESET_{}_T is access procedure'
                                '(name: chars_ptr);'.format(timer))
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            for each in ('', 'RE'):
                ads_template.append('pragma Convention(Convention => C,'
                                    ' Entity => {re}SET_{t}_T);'
                                    .format(re=each, t=timer))
                ads_template.append('{re}SET_{t} : {re}SET_{t}_T;'
                                    .format(re=each, t=timer))
                ads_template.append('procedure Register_{re}SET_{t}'
                                    '(Callback: {re}SET_{t}_T);'
                                    .format(re=each, t=timer))
                ads_template.append('pragma Export(C, Register_{re}SET_{t},'
                                    ' "register_{re}SET_{t}");'
                                    .format(re=each, t=timer))
            # Code for the SET/RESET timer callback registration
            for each in ('', 'RE'):
                taste_template.append('procedure Register_{re}SET_{t}'
                                      '(Callback:{re}SET_{t}_T) is'
                                      .format(re=each, t=timer))
                taste_template.append('begin')
                taste_template.append('{re}SET_{t} := Callback;'
                                      .format(re=each, t=timer))
                taste_template.append('end Register_{re}SET_{t};'
                                      .format(re=each, t=timer))
                taste_template.append('')

        else:
            ads_template.append(u'procedure SET_{}(val: access asn1SccT_UInt32);'
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                .format(timer))
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            ads_template.append(
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                u'pragma import(C, SET_{timer}, "{proc}_RI_set_{timer}");'
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                .format(timer=timer, proc=process_name))
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            ads_template.append(u'procedure RESET_{};'.format(timer))
            ads_template.append(
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                u'pragma import(C, RESET_{timer}, "{proc}_RI_reset_{timer}");'
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                .format(timer=timer, proc=process_name))

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    # If the process has no input, output, procedures, or timers, then Ada
    # will not compile the body - generate a pragma to fix this
    if not process.timers and not process.procedures \
            and not process.input_signals and not process.output_signals:
        ads_template.append('pragma elaborate_body;')

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    # Transform inner labels to floating labels
    Helper.inner_labels_to_floating(process)
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    # Generate the code for all transitions
    code_transitions = []
    local_decl_transitions = []
    for proc_tr in process.transitions:
        code_tr, tr_local_decl = generate(proc_tr)
        code_transitions.append(code_tr)
        local_decl_transitions.extend(tr_local_decl)

    # Generate code for the floating labels
    code_labels = []
    for label in process.content.floating_labels:
        code_label, label_decl = generate(label)
        local_decl_transitions.extend(label_decl)
        code_labels.extend(code_label)

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    # Generate the code of the runTransition procedure, if needed
    if process.transitions:
        taste_template.append('procedure runTransition(Id: Integer) is')
        taste_template.append('trId : Integer := Id;')
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        # Declare the local variables needed by the transitions in the template
        taste_template.extend(set(local_decl_transitions))
        taste_template.append('begin')
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        # Generate a loop that ends when a next state is reached
        # (there can be chained transition when entering a nested state)
        taste_template.append('while (trId /= -1) loop')
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        # Generate the switch-case on the transition id
        taste_template.append('case trId is')
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        for idx, val in enumerate(code_transitions):
            taste_template.append(u'when {idx} =>'.format(idx=idx))
            val = [u'{line}'.format(line=l) for l in val]
            if val:
                taste_template.extend(val)
            else:
                taste_template.append('null;')
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        taste_template.append('when others =>')
        taste_template.append('null;')

        taste_template.append('end case;')
        if code_labels:
            # Due to nested states (chained transitions) jump over label code
            # (NEXTSTATEs do not return from runTransition)
            taste_template.append('goto next_transition;')
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        # Add the code for the floating labels
        taste_template.extend(code_labels)
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        #if code_labels:
        taste_template.append('<<next_transition>>')
        taste_template.append('null;')
        taste_template.append('end loop;')
        taste_template.append('end runTransition;')
        taste_template.append('\n')
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    # Add code of the package elaboration
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    taste_template.extend(start_transition)
    taste_template.append('end {process_name};'
            .format(process_name=process_name))

    ads_template.append('end {process_name};'
            .format(process_name=process_name))

    with open(process_name + '.adb', 'w') as ada_file:
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        ada_file.write(
                u'\n'.join(format_ada_code(taste_template)).encode('latin1'))
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    with open(process_name + '.ads', 'w') as ada_file:
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        ada_file.write(
                u'\n'.join(format_ada_code(ads_template)).encode('latin1'))
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    if simu:
        with open(u'{}_interface.aadl'.format(process_name), 'w') as aadl:
            aadl.write(u'\n'.join(minicv).encode('latin1'))

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    if not simu:
        with open('{}_simu.sh'.format(process_name), 'w') as bash_script:
            bash_script.write(simu_script)

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def write_statement(param, newline):
    ''' Generate the code for the special "write" operator '''
    code = []
    string = ''
    local = []
    basic_type = find_basic_type(param.exprType) or {}
    type_kind = basic_type.kind
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    if isinstance(param, ogAST.ExprAppend):
        # Append: call Put_Line separately for each side of the expression
        st1, _, lcl1= write_statement(param.left, newline = False)
        st2, _, lcl2 = write_statement(param.right, newline = False)
        code.extend(st1)
        code.extend(st2)
        local.extend(lcl1)
        local.extend(lcl2)
    elif type_kind.endswith('StringType'):
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        if isinstance(param, ogAST.PrimStringLiteral):
            # Raw string
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            code.append(u'Put("{}");'
                        .format(param.value[1:-1].replace('"', "'")))
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        else:
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            code, string, local = expression(param)
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            if type_kind == 'OctetStringType':
                # Octet string -> convert to Ada string
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                sep = UNICODE_SEP
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                last_it = u""
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                if isinstance(param, ogAST.PrimSubstring):
                    range_str = u"{}'Range".format(string)
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                    iterator = u"i - {}'First + 1".format(string)
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                elif basic_type.Min == basic_type.Max:
                    range_str = u"{}.Data'Range".format(string)
                    string += u".Data"
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                    iterator = u"i"
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                else:
                    range_str = u"1 .. {}.Length".format(string)
                    string += u".Data"
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                    iterator = u"i"
                    last_it = u"({})".format(range_str)
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                code.extend([u"for i in {} loop".format(range_str),
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                             u"Put(Character'Val({st}(i)));"
                             .format(st=string, sep=sep, it=iterator),
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                             u"end loop;"])
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            else:
                code.append("Put({});".format(string))
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    elif type_kind in ('IntegerType', 'RealType',
                       'BooleanType', 'Integer32Type'):
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        code, string, local = expression(param)
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        if type_kind in ('IntegerType', 'Integer32Type'):
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            cast = "Asn1Int"
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        elif type_kind == 'RealType':
            cast = 'Long_Float'
        elif type_kind == 'BooleanType':
            cast = 'Boolean'
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        code.append(u"Put({cast}'Image({s}));".format(cast=cast, s=string))
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    else:
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        error = (u'Unsupported parameter in write call ' +
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                param.inputString)
        LOG.error(error)
        raise TypeError(error)
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    if newline:
        code.append(u"New_Line;")
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    return code, string, local


@generate.register(ogAST.Output)
@generate.register(ogAST.ProcedureCall)
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def _call_external_function(output, **kwargs):
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    ''' Generate the code of a set of output or procedure call statement '''
    code = []
    local_decl = []

    # Add the traceability information
    code.extend(traceability(output))

    for out in output.output:
        signal_name = out['outputName']

        if signal_name.lower() in ('write', 'writeln'):
            # special built-in SDL procedure for printing strings
            # supports printing of native types (int, real, bool)
            # but not yet complex ASN.1 structures (sequence/seqof/choice)
            for param in out['params'][:-1]:
                stmts, _, local = write_statement(param, newline=False)
                code.extend(stmts)
                local_decl.extend(local)
            for param in out['params'][-1:]:
                # Last parameter - add newline if necessary
                stmts, _, local = write_statement(param, newline=True if
                        signal_name.lower() == 'writeln' else False)
                code.extend(stmts)
                local_decl.extend(local)
            continue
        elif signal_name.lower() == 'reset_timer':
            # built-in operator for resetting timers. param = timer name
            param, = out['params']
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            p_code, p_id, p_local = expression(param)
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            code.extend(p_code)
            local_decl.extend(p_local)
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            if not SHARED_LIB:
                code.append('RESET_{};'.format(p_id))
            else:
                code.append('RESET_{t}(New_String("{t}"));'.format(t=p_id))
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            continue
        elif signal_name.lower() == 'set_timer':
            # built-in operator for setting a timer: SET(1000, timer_name)
            timer_value, timer_id = out['params']
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            t_code, t_val, t_local = expression(timer_value)
            p_code, p_id, p_local = expression(timer_id)
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            code.extend(t_code)
            code.extend(p_code)
            local_decl.extend(t_local)
            local_decl.extend(p_local)
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            if not SHARED_LIB:
                # Use a temporary variable to store the timer value
                tmp_id = 'tmp' + str(out['tmpVars'][0])
                local_decl.append('{} : aliased asn1SccT_UInt32;'
                                  .format(tmp_id))
                code.append('{tmp} := {val};'.format(tmp=tmp_id, val=t_val))
                code.append("SET_{timer}({value}'access);"
                            .format(timer=p_id, value=tmp_id))
            else:
                code.append('SET_{t}(New_String("{t}"), {val});'
                            .format(t=p_id, val=t_val))
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            continue
        proc, out_sig = None, None
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        is_out_sig = False
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        try:
            out_sig, = [sig for sig in OUT_SIGNALS
                        if sig['name'].lower() == signal_name.lower()]
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            is_out_sig = True if SHARED_LIB else False
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        except ValueError:
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            # Not an output, try if it is an external or inner procedure
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            try:
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                proc, = [sig for sig in PROCEDURES
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                            if sig.inputString.lower() == signal_name.lower()]
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                if proc.external:
                    out_sig = proc
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            except ValueError:
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                # Not there? Impossible, the parser would have barked
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                raise ValueError(u'Probably a bug - please report')
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        if out_sig:
            list_of_params = []
            for idx, param in enumerate(out.get('params') or []):
                param_direction = 'in'
                try:
                    # If it is an output, there is a single parameter
                    param_type = out_sig['type']
                except TypeError:
                    # Else if it is a procedure, get the type
                    param_type = out_sig.fpar[idx]['type']
                    param_direction = out_sig.fpar[idx]['direction']

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                typename = type_name(param_type)
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                p_code, p_id, p_local = expression(param)
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                code.extend(p_code)
                local_decl.extend(p_local)
                # Create a temporary variable for input parameters only
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                # (If needed, i.e. if argument is not a local variable)
                if param_direction == 'in' \
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                        and (not (isinstance(param, ogAST.PrimVariable)
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                        and p_id.startswith(LPREFIX))
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                        or isinstance(param, ogAST.PrimFPAR)):
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                    tmp_id = 'tmp{}'.format(out['tmpVars'][idx])
                    local_decl.append('{tmp} : aliased {sort};'
                                      .format(tmp=tmp_id,
                                              sort=typename))
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                    if isinstance(param,
                              (ogAST.PrimSequenceOf, ogAST.PrimStringLiteral)):
                        p_id = array_content(param, p_id,
                                             find_basic_type(param_type))
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                    code.append('{} := {};'.format(tmp_id, p_id))
                    list_of_params.append("{}'access{}"
                                          .format(tmp_id,
                                                  ", {}'Size".format(tmp_id)
                                                     if is_out_sig else ""))
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                else:
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                    # Output parameters/local variables
                    list_of_params.append(u"{var}'access{shared}"
                                         .format(var=p_id,
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                                                shared=", {}'Size".format(p_id)
                                                  if is_out_sig else ""))
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            if list_of_params:
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                code.append(u'{RI}({params});'
                            .format(RI=out['outputName'],
                                    params=', '.join(list_of_params)))
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            else:
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                if not SHARED_LIB:
                    code.append(u'{RI};'.format(RI=out['outputName']))
                else:
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                    code.append(u'{RI}(New_String("{RI}"));'
                                .format(RI=out['outputName']))
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        else:
            # inner procedure call
            list_of_params = []
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            for param in out.get('params', []):
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                p_code, p_id, p_local = expression(param)
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                code.extend(p_code)
                local_decl.extend(p_local)
                # no need to use temporary variables, we are in pure Ada
                list_of_params.append(p_id)
            if list_of_params:
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                code.append(u'p{sep}{proc}({params});'.format(
                    sep=UNICODE_SEP,
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                    proc=proc.inputString,
                    params=', '.join(list_of_params)))
            else:
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                code.append(u'p{}{};'.format(UNICODE_SEP, proc.inputString))
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    return code, local_decl


@generate.register(ogAST.TaskAssign)
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def _task_assign(task, **kwargs):
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    ''' A list of assignments in a task symbol '''
    code, local_decl = [], []
    if task.comment:
        code.extend(traceability(task.comment))
    for expr in task.elems:
        code.extend(traceability(expr))
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        # ExprAssign only returns code statements, no string
        code_assign, _, decl_assign = expression(expr)
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        code.extend(code_assign)
        local_decl.extend(decl_assign)
    return code, local_decl


@generate.register(ogAST.TaskInformalText)
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def _task_informal_text(task, **kwargs):
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    ''' Generate Ada comments for informal text '''
    code = []
    if task.comment:
        code.extend(traceability(task.comment))
    code.extend(['-- ' + text.replace('\n', '\n-- ') for text in task.elems])
    return code, []


@generate.register(ogAST.TaskForLoop)
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def _task_forloop(task, **kwargs):
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    '''
        Return the code corresponding to a for loop. Two forms are possible:
        for x in range ([start], stop [, step])
        for x in iterable (a SEQUENCE OF)
    '''
    stmt, local_decl = [], []
    if task.comment:
        stmt.extend(traceability(task.comment))
    stmt.extend(traceability(task))
    for loop in task.elems:
        if loop['range']:
            start_str, stop_str = '0', ''
            if loop['range']['start']:
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                start_stmt, start_str, start_local = expression(
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                                                    loop['range']['start'])
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                local_decl.extend(start_local)
                stmt.extend(start_stmt)
            if loop['range']['step'] == 1:
                start_str += '..'
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            stop_stmt, stop_str, stop_local = expression(loop['range']['stop'])
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            local_decl.extend(stop_local)
            stmt.extend(stop_stmt)
            if loop['range']['step'] == 1:
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                if unicode.isnumeric(stop_str):
                    stop_str = unicode(int(stop_str) - 1)
                else:
                    stop_str = u'{} - 1'.format(stop_str)
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                stmt.append(
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                        u'for {it} in {start}{stop} loop'
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                        .format(it=loop['var'], start=start_str, stop=stop_str))
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            else:
                # Step is not directly supported in Ada, we need to use 'while'
                stmt.extend(['declare',
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                             u'{it} : Integer := {start};'
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                             .format(it=loop['var'],
                             start=start_str),
                             '',
                             'begin',
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                             u'while {it} < {stop} loop'.format(it=loop['var'],
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                                                               stop=stop_str)])
        else:
            # case of form: FOR x in SEQUENCE OF
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            list_stmt, list_str, list_local = expression(loop['list'])
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            basic_type = find_basic_type(loop['list'].exprType)
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            list_payload = list_str + string_payload(loop['list'], list_str)
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            if isinstance(loop['list'], ogAST.PrimSubstring) or \
                    basic_type.Min == basic_type.Max:
                range_str = u"{}'Range".format(list_payload)
            else:
                range_str = u"1 .. {}.Length".format(list_str)
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            stmt.extend(list_stmt)
            local_decl.extend(list_local)
            stmt.extend(['declare',
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                         '{} : {};'.format(loop['var'],
                                           type_name(loop['type'])),
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                         '',
                         'begin',
                         'for {it}_idx in {rc} loop'.format(it=loop['var'],
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                                                            rc=range_str),
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                         '{it} := {var}({it}_idx);'.format(it=loop['var'],
                                                          var=list_payload)])
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        try:
            code_trans, local_trans = generate(loop['transition'])
            if local_trans:
                stmt.append('declare')
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                stmt.extend(set(local_trans))
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                stmt.append('')
                stmt.append('begin')
            stmt.extend(code_trans)
            if local_trans:
                stmt.append('end;')
        except AttributeError:
            stmt.append('null;')
        if loop['range'] and loop['range']['step'] != 1:
            stmt.append('{it} := {it} + {step};'.format(it=loop['var'],
                                                   step=loop['range']['step']))
        stmt.append('end loop;')
        if (loop['range'] and loop['range']['step'] != 1) or loop['list']:
            stmt.append('end;')
    return stmt, local_decl


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@singledispatch
def expression(expr):
    ''' Generate the code for Expression-classes, returning 3 things:
        - list of statements
        - useable string corresponding to the evaluation of the expression,
        - list of local declarations
    '''
    raise TypeError('Unsupported expression: ' + str(expr))
    return [], '', []

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@expression.register(ogAST.PrimVariable)
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def _primary_variable(prim):
    ''' Single variable reference '''
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    sep = LPREFIX if find_var(prim.value[0]) else u''
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    ada_string = u'{sep}{name}'.format(sep=sep, name=prim.value[0])
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    if prim.exprType.__name__ == 'for_range':
        # Ada iterator in FOR loops is an Integer - we must cast to 64 bits
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        ada_string = u'Asn1Int({})'.format(ada_string)
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    return [], unicode(ada_string), []
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@expression.register(ogAST.PrimCall)
def _prim_call(prim):
    stmts, ada_string, local_decl = [], '', []

    ident = prim.value[0].lower()
    params = prim.value[1]['procParams']

    if ident in ('abs', 'fix', 'float'):
        # Return absolute value of a number
        param_stmts, param_str, local_var = expression(params[0])
        stmts.extend(param_stmts)
        local_decl.extend(local_var)
        ada_string += '{op}({param})'.format(
                param=param_str,
                op='abs' if ident == 'abs' else
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                'Asn1Int' if ident == 'fix' else 'Asn1Real'
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                if ident == 'float' else 'ERROR')
    elif ident == 'power':
        operands = [None, None]
        for idx, param in enumerate(params):
            stmt, operands[idx], local = expression(param)
            stmts.extend(stmt)
            local_decl.extend(local)
        ada_string += '{op[0]} ** Natural({op[1]})'.format(op=operands)
    elif ident == 'length':
        # Length of sequence of: take only the first parameter
        exp = params[0]
        exp_type = find_basic_type(exp.exprType)
        min_length = getattr(exp_type, 'Min', None)
        max_length = getattr(exp_type, 'Max', None)
        if min_length is None or max_length is None:
            error = '{} is not a SEQUENCE OF'.format(
                    exp.inputString)
            LOG.error(error)
            raise TypeError(error)
        param_stmts, param_str, local_var = expression(exp)
        stmts.extend(param_stmts)
        local_decl.extend(local_var)
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        if min_length == max_length \
                and not isinstance(exp, ogAST.PrimSubstring):
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            ada_string += min_length
        else:
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            if isinstance(exp, ogAST.PrimSubstring):
                range_str = u"{}'Length".format(param_str)
            else:
                range_str = u"{}.Length".format(param_str)
            ada_string += ('Asn1Int({})'.format(range_str))
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    elif ident == 'present':
        # User wants to know what CHOICE element is present
        exp = params[0]
        # Get the basic type to make sure it is a choice
        exp_type = find_basic_type(exp.exprType)
        # Also get the ASN.1 type name as it is
        # needed to build the Ada expression
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        exp_typename = type_name(exp.exprType)
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        if exp_type.kind != 'ChoiceType':
            error = '{} is not a CHOICE'.format(exp.inputString)
            LOG.error(error)
            raise TypeError(error)
        param_stmts, param_str, local_var = expression(exp)
        stmts.extend(param_stmts)
        local_decl.extend(local_var)
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        ada_string += ('{sort}_Kind({e})'
                       .format(sort=exp_typename,
                               e=param_str))
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    elif ident == 'num':
        # User wants to get an enumerated corresponding integer value
        exp = params[0]
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        exp_typename = type_name(exp.exprType)
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        param_stmts, param_str, local_var = expression(exp)
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        local_decl.append('function num_{sort} is new Ada.Unchecked_Conversion'
                          '({sort}, Asn1Int);'.format(sort=exp_typename))
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        stmts.extend(param_stmts)
        local_decl.extend(local_var)
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        ada_string += ('num_{sort}({p})'
                       .format(sort=exp_typename,
                               p=param_str))
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    elif ident == 'floor':
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        exp = params[0]
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        exp_typename = type_name(exp.exprType)
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        param_stmts, param_str, local_var = expression(exp)
        stmts.extend(param_stmts)
        local_decl.extend(local_var)
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        ada_string += "{sort}'Floor({p})".format(sort=exp_typename,
                                                 p=param_str)
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    elif ident == 'ceil':
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        exp = params[0]
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        exp_typename = type_name(exp.exprType)
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        param_stmts, param_str, local_var = expression(exp)
        stmts.extend(param_stmts)
        local_decl.extend(local_var)
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        ada_string += "{sort}'Ceiling({p})".format(sort=exp_typename,
                                                   p=param_str)
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    elif ident == 'cos':
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        exp = params[0]
        param_stmts, param_str, local_var = expression(exp)
        stmts.extend(param_stmts)
        local_decl.extend(local_var)
        local_decl.append('package Math is new '
                          'Ada.Numerics.Generic_Elementary_Functions'
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                          '(Asn1Real);')
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        ada_string += "Math.Cos({})".format(param_str)
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    elif ident == 'round':
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        exp = params[0]
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        exp_typename = type_name(exp.exprType)
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        param_stmts, param_str, local_var = expression(exp)
        stmts.extend(param_stmts)
        local_decl.extend(local_var)
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        ada_string += "{sort}'Rounding({p})".format(sort=exp_typename,
                                                    p=param_str)
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    elif ident == 'sin':
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        exp = params[0]
        param_stmts, param_str, local_var = expression(exp)
        stmts.extend(param_stmts)
        local_decl.extend(local_var)
        local_decl.append('package Math is new '
                          'Ada.Numerics.Generic_Elementary_Functions'
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                          '(Asn1Real);')
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        ada_string += "Math.Sin({})".format(param_str)
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    elif ident == 'sqrt':
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        exp = params[0]
        param_stmts, param_str, local_var = expression(exp)
        stmts.extend(param_stmts)
        local_decl.extend(local_var)
        local_decl.append('package Math is new '
                          'Ada.Numerics.Generic_Elementary_Functions'
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                          '(Asn1Real);')
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        ada_string += "Math.Sqrt({})".format(param_str)
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    elif ident == 'trunc':
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        exp = params[0]
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        exp_typename = type_name(exp.exprType)
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        param_stmts, param_str, local_var = expression(exp)
        stmts.extend(param_stmts)
        local_decl.extend(local_var)
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        ada_string += "{sort}'Truncation({p})".format(sort=exp_typename,
                                                      p=param_str)
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    else:
        ada_string += '('
        # Take all params and join them with commas
        list_of_params = []
        for param in params:
            param_stmt, param_str, local_var = (expression(param))
            list_of_params.append(param_str)
            stmts.extend(param_stmt)
            local_decl.extend(local_var)
        ada_string += ', '.join(list_of_params)
        ada_string += ')'

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    return stmts, unicode(ada_string), local_decl
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@expression.register(ogAST.PrimIndex)
def _prim_index(prim):
    stmts, ada_string, local_decl = [], '', []

    receiver = prim.value[0]

    receiver_stms, reciver_string, receiver_decl = expression(receiver)
    ada_string = reciver_string
    stmts.extend(receiver_stms)
    local_decl.extend(receiver_decl)

    idx_stmts, idx_string, idx_var = expression(prim.value[1]['index'][0])
    if unicode.isnumeric(idx_string):
        idx_string = int(idx_string) + 1
    else:
        idx_string = '1+Integer({idx})'.format(idx=idx_string)
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    if not isinstance(receiver, ogAST.PrimSubstring):
        ada_string += '.Data'
    ada_string += '({idx})'.format(idx=idx_string)
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    stmts.extend(idx_stmts)
    local_decl.extend(idx_var)

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    return stmts, unicode(ada_string), local_decl
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@expression.register(ogAST.PrimSubstring)
def _prim_substring(prim):
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    ''' Generate expression for SEQOF/OCT.STRING substrings, e.g. foo(1,2) '''
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    stmts, ada_string, local_decl = [], '', []

    receiver = prim.value[0]

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    receiver_stms, receiver_string, receiver_decl = expression(receiver)
    ada_string = receiver_string
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    stmts.extend(receiver_stms)
    local_decl.extend(receiver_decl)

    r1_stmts, r1_string, r1_local = expression(prim.value[1]['substring'][0])
    r2_stmts, r2_string, r2_local = expression(prim.value[1]['substring'][1])

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    # Adding 1 because SDL starts indexes at 0, ASN1 Ada types at 1
    if unicode.isnumeric(r1_string):
        r1_string = unicode(int(r1_string) + 1)
    else:
        r1_string += ' + 1'
    if unicode.isnumeric(r2_string):
        r2_string = unicode(int(r2_string) + 1)
    else:
        r2_string += ' + 1'

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    if not isinstance(receiver, ogAST.PrimSubstring):
        ada_string += '.Data'
    ada_string += '({r1}..{r2})'.format(r1=r1_string, r2=r2_string)
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    stmts.extend(r1_stmts)
    stmts.extend(r2_stmts)
    local_decl.extend(r1_local)
    local_decl.extend(r2_local)

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    return stmts, unicode(ada_string), local_decl
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@expression.register(ogAST.PrimSelector)
def _prim_selector(prim):
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    ''' Selector (field access with '!' separation) '''
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    stmts, ada_string, local_decl = [], '', []

    receiver = prim.value[0]
    field_name = prim.value[1]

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    receiver_stms, receiver_string, receiver_decl = expression(receiver)
    ada_string = receiver_string
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    stmts.extend(receiver_stms)
    local_decl.extend(receiver_decl)

    receiver_bty = find_basic_type(receiver.exprType)

    if receiver_bty.kind == 'ChoiceType':
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        ada_string = ('{sort}_{field_name}_get({ada_string})'
                    .format(sort=type_name(receiver.exprType),
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                            field_name=field_name,
                            ada_string=ada_string))
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    else:
        ada_string += '.' + field_name

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