AdaGenerator.py 62.6 KB
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#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

"""
    OpenGEODE - A tiny SDL Editor for TASTE

    This module generates Ada code from SDL process models.
    The Ada code is compliant with the TASTE interfaces, and is
    using the ASN.1 "Space-Certified" compiler for data type definition.
    (See TASTE documentation for more information)

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    The design is flexible and can be used as basis for other backends.
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    Entry point:
    The AST of the model that is parsed is described in ogAST.py

    A Visitor Pattern using Python's "singledispatch" mechanism is used
    to go through the AST and generate code for each SDL construct.

    There is a single function called "generate", decorated with the
    singledispatch mechanism, that needs to be called to generate the code
    of any AST element.

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    The generate function returns two values: "code" and "local_decl",
    containing a set of statements and a set of local variables
    (that can be later placed anywhere in the code).
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    Expressions (all classes derived from ogAST.Expression) are generated
    using the "expression" visitor (singledispatch set of function).

    Expressions return three values: "code", "ada_string" and "local_decl".
    The "ada_string" value is the usable string that corresponds
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    to the result of the expression evaluation.

    For example, take the SDL statement "OUTPUT hello(a+5)"

    This results (in TASTE terminology) in calling the required interface
    called "hello" and passing a parameter of an ASN.1 type (say MyInteger).
    The parameter is always passed by reference.

    It is therefore necessary to build a temporary variable to hold the result
    of the "a+5" expression.

    In this example, the "generate" function will return:
    local_decl = ["tmp01 : MyInteger;"]
    (The template backend can then place it wherever appropriate)

    and code = ["tmp01 := a + 5;", "hello(tmp01);"]
    (The template will then do a '\n'.join(code) - and add indents, etc.)

    To know about "tmp01" and generate the code "hello(tmp01);",
    the function will recursively call "generate" and
    pass a+5 as parameter. The call will return the tuple:

    local_decl = ["tmp01 : MyInteger;"]
    code = ["tmp01 := a + 5;"]
    ada_string = "tmp01"

    This design allows to have any level of complexity in the embedded
    expression in a way that is easy to handle (adding constructs with
    this pattern is straightforward, once the generate function for each AST
    entry is properly implemented).

    Copyright (c) 2012-2013 European Space Agency

    Designed and implemented by Maxime Perrotin

    Contact: maxime.perrotin@esa.int
"""


import logging
from singledispatch import singledispatch

import ogAST
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import Helper
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LOG = logging.getLogger(__name__)

__all__ = ['generate']

# reference to the ASN.1 Data view and to the visible variables (in scope)
TYPES = None
VARIABLES = {}
LOCAL_VAR = {}
# List of output signals and procedures
OUT_SIGNALS = []
PROCEDURES = []
INNER_PROCEDURES = []


@singledispatch
def generate(ast):
    ''' Generate the code for an item of the AST '''
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    _ = ast
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    raise TypeError('[AdaGenerator] Unsupported AST construct')
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    return [], []
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# Processing of the AST

@generate.register(ogAST.Process)
def _process(process):
    ''' Generate the code for a complete process (AST Top level) '''
    process_name = process.processName
    global TYPES
    TYPES = process.dataview
    del OUT_SIGNALS[:]
    del PROCEDURES[:]
    del INNER_PROCEDURES[:]
    OUT_SIGNALS.extend(process.output_signals)
    PROCEDURES.extend(process.procedures)

    LOG.info('Generating Ada code for process ' + str(process_name))

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    # In case model has nested states, flatten everything
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    Helper.flatten(process, sep='_')
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    # Make an maping {input: {state: transition...}} in order to easily
    # generate the lookup tables for the state machine runtime
    mapping = Helper.map_input_state(process)

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    VARIABLES.update(process.variables)
    INNER_PROCEDURES.extend(process.content.inner_procedures)

    # Generate the code to declare process-level variables
    process_level_decl = []
    for var_name, (var_type, def_value) in process.variables.viewitems():
        if def_value:
            # Expression must be a ground expression, i.e. must not
            # require temporary variable to store computed result
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            dst, dstr, dlocal = expression(def_value)
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            assert not dst and not dlocal, 'DCL: Expecting a ground expression'
        process_level_decl.append(
                'l_{n} : aliased asn1Scc{t}{default};'.format(
                        n=var_name,
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                        t=var_type.ReferencedTypeName.replace('-', '_'),
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                        default=' := ' + dstr if def_value else ''))


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    # Add the process states list to the process-level variables
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    statelist = ', '.join(name for name in process.mapping.iterkeys()
                             if not name.endswith('START')) or 'No_State'
    if statelist:
        states_decl = 'type states is ({});'.format(statelist)
        process_level_decl.append(states_decl)
        process_level_decl.append('state : states;')
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    for name, val in process.mapping.viewitems():
        if name.endswith('START') and name != 'START':
            process_level_decl.append('{name} : constant := {val};'
                                      .format(name=name, val=str(val)))

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    # Add function allowing to trace current state as a string
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    #process_level_decl.append('function get_state return String;')
    #process_level_decl.append('pragma export(C, get_state, "{}_state");'
    #                                                     .format(process_name))
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    # Add the declaration of the runTransition procedure
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    process_level_decl.append('procedure runTransition(Id: Integer);')
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    #process_level_decl.append('procedure state_start;')
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    #process_level_decl.append('pragma export(C, start, "{}_start");'
    #                          .format(process_name))
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    # Generate the code of the start transition:
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    start_transition = ['begin',
                        'runTransition(0);']
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    # Generate the TASTE template
    try:
        asn1_modules = '\n'.join(['with {dv};\nuse {dv};'.format(
            dv=dv.replace('-', '_'))
            for dv in process.asn1Modules])
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        asn1_modules += '\nwith adaasn1rtl;\nuse adaasn1rtl;'
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    except TypeError:
        asn1_modules = '--  No ASN.1 data types are used in this model'
    taste_template = ['''\
-- This file was generated automatically: DO NOT MODIFY IT !

with System.IO;
use System.IO;

{dataview}

with Interfaces;
use Interfaces;

package body {process_name} is'''.format(process_name=process_name,
    dataview=asn1_modules)]

    # Generate the source file (.ads) header
    ads_template = ['''\
-- This file was generated automatically: DO NOT MODIFY IT !

{dataview}

package {process_name} is'''.format(process_name=process_name,
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                                    dataview=asn1_modules)]
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    # Generate the the code of the procedures
    inner_procedures_code = []
    for proc in process.content.inner_procedures:
        proc_code, proc_local = generate(proc)
        process_level_decl.extend(proc_local)
        inner_procedures_code.extend(proc_code)

    # Generate the code for the process-level variable declarations
    taste_template.extend(process_level_decl)

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    # Generate the code for the start procedure
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    #taste_template.extend([
    #    'procedure state_start is',
    #    'begin',
    #        'null;',
    #    'end state_start;', ''])
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    # Add the code of the procedures definitions
    taste_template.extend(inner_procedures_code)

    # Generate the code for each input signal (provided interface) and timers
    for signal in process.input_signals + [
                        {'name': timer.lower()} for timer in process.timers]:
        if signal.get('name', 'START') == 'START':
            continue
        pi_header = 'procedure {sig_name}'.format(sig_name=signal['name'])
        param_name = signal.get('param_name') or 'MISSING_PARAM_NAME'
        # Add (optional) PI parameter (only one is possible in TASTE PI)
        if 'type' in signal:
            typename = signal['type'].ReferencedTypeName.replace('-', '_')
            pi_header += '({pName}: access asn1Scc{pType})'.format(
                                           pName=param_name, pType=typename)

        # Add declaration of the provided interface in the .ads file
        ads_template.append('--  Provided interface "' + signal['name'] + '"')
        ads_template.append(pi_header + ';')
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        ads_template.append('pragma export(C, {name}, "{proc}_{name}");'
                            .format(name=signal['name'], proc=process_name))
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        pi_header += ' is'
        taste_template.append(pi_header)
        taste_template.append('begin')
        taste_template.append('case state is')
        for state in process.mapping.viewkeys():
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            if state.endswith('START'):
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                continue
            taste_template.append('when {state} =>'.format(state=state))
            input_def = mapping[signal['name']].get(state)
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            # Check for nested states to call optional exit procedure
            sep = '_'
            state_tree = state.split(sep)
            context=process
            exitlist = []
            current = ''
            trans = input_def and process.transitions[input_def.transition_id]
            while state_tree:
                current = current + state_tree.pop(0)
                for comp in context.composite_states:
                    if current == comp.statename.lower():
                        if comp.exit_procedure:
                            exitlist.append(current)
                        context = comp
                        current = current + sep
                        break
            for each in reversed(exitlist):
                if trans and all(each.startswith(trans_st)
                                 for trans_st in trans.possible_states):
                    taste_template.append(each + '_' + 'exit;')

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            if input_def:
                for inp in input_def.parameters:
                    # Assign the (optional and unique) parameter
                    # to the corresponding process variable
                    taste_template.append('l_{inp} := {tInp}.all;'.format(
                        inp=inp, tInp=param_name))
                # Execute the correponding transition
                if input_def.transition:
                    taste_template.append('runTransition({idx});'.format(
                        idx=input_def.transition_id))
                else:
                    taste_template.append('null;')
            else:
                taste_template.append('null;')
        taste_template.append('when others =>')
        taste_template.append('null;')
        taste_template.append('end case;')
        taste_template.append('end {sig_name};'.format(
                                                      sig_name=signal['name']))
        taste_template.append('\n')

    # for the .ads file, generate the declaration of the required interfaces
    # output signals are the asynchronous RI - only one parameter
    for signal in process.output_signals:
        ri_header = 'procedure {sig_name}'.format(sig_name=signal['name'])
        param_name = signal.get('param_name') or 'MISSING_PARAM_NAME'
        # Add (optional) RI parameter
        if 'type' in signal:
            typename = signal['type'].ReferencedTypeName.replace('-', '_')
            ri_header += '({pName}: access asn1Scc{pType})'.format(
                pName=param_name, pType=typename)
        ads_template.append('--  Required interface "' + signal['name'] + '"')
        ads_template.append(ri_header + ';')
        ads_template.append('pragma import(C, {sig}, "{proc}_RI_{sig}");'
                .format(sig=signal['name'], proc=process_name))

    # for the .ads file, generate the declaration of the external procedures
    for proc in process.procedures:
        ri_header = 'procedure {sig_name}'.format(sig_name=proc.inputString)
        params = []
        for param in proc.fpar:
            typename = param['type'].ReferencedTypeName.replace('-', '_')
            params.append('{par[name]}: access asn1Scc{partype}'.format(
                par=param, partype=typename))
        if params:
            ri_header += '(' + ';'.join(params) + ')'
        ads_template.append('--  Sync required interface "' + proc.inputString)
        ads_template.append(ri_header + ';')
        ads_template.append('pragma import(C, {sig}, "{proc}_RI_{sig}");'
                .format(sig=proc.inputString, proc=process_name))

    # for the .ads file, generate the declaration of timers set/reset functions
    for timer in process.timers:
        ads_template.append(
                '--  Timer {} SET and RESET functions'.format(timer))
        ads_template.append('procedure SET_{}(val: access asn1SccT_UInt32);'
                .format(timer))
        ads_template.append(
                'pragma import(C, SET_{timer}, "{proc}_RI_set_{timer}");'
                .format(timer=timer, proc=process_name))
        ads_template.append('procedure RESET_{};'.format(timer))
        ads_template.append(
                'pragma import(C, RESET_{timer}, "{proc}_RI_reset_{timer}");'
                .format(timer=timer, proc=process_name))

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    taste_template.append('procedure runTransition(Id: Integer) is')
    taste_template.append('trId : Integer := Id;')

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    # If the process has no input, output, procedures, or timers, then Ada
    # will not compile the body - generate a pragma to fix this
    if not process.timers and not process.procedures \
            and not process.input_signals and not process.output_signals:
        ads_template.append('pragma elaborate_body;')

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    # Transform inner labels to floating labels
    Helper.inner_labels_to_floating(process)
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    # Generate the code for all transitions
    code_transitions = []
    local_decl_transitions = []
    for proc_tr in process.transitions:
        code_tr, tr_local_decl = generate(proc_tr)
        code_transitions.append(code_tr)
        local_decl_transitions.extend(tr_local_decl)


    # Generate code for the floating labels
    code_labels = []
    for label in process.content.floating_labels:
        code_label, label_decl = generate(label)
        local_decl_transitions.extend(label_decl)
        code_labels.extend(code_label)

    # Declare the local variables needed by the transitions in the template
    decl = ['{line}'.format(line=l)
            for l in local_decl_transitions]
    taste_template.extend(decl)
    taste_template.append('begin')

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    # Generate a loop that ends when a next state is reached
    # (there can be chained transition when entering a nested state)
    taste_template.append('while (trId /= -1) loop')

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    # Generate the switch-case on the transition id
    taste_template.append('case trId is')

    for idx, val in enumerate(code_transitions):
        taste_template.append('when {idx} =>'.format(idx=idx))
        val = ['{line}'.format(line=l) for l in val]
        if val:
            taste_template.extend(val)
        else:
            taste_template.append('null;')

    taste_template.append('when others =>')
    taste_template.append('null;')

    taste_template.append('end case;')
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    if code_labels:
        # Due to nested states (chained transitions) jump over label code
        # (NEXTSTATEs do not return from runTransition)
        taste_template.append('goto next_transition;')
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    # Add the code for the floating labels
    taste_template.extend(code_labels)

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    #if code_labels:
    taste_template.append('<<next_transition>>')
    taste_template.append('null;')
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    taste_template.append('end loop;')
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    taste_template.append('end runTransition;')
    taste_template.append('\n')

    # Code of the function allowing to trace current state
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    #taste_template.append('function get_state return String is')
    #taste_template.append('begin')
    #taste_template.append("return states'Image(state);")
    #taste_template.append('end get_state;')
    #taste_template.append('\n')
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    taste_template.extend(start_transition)
    taste_template.append('end {process_name};'
            .format(process_name=process_name))

    ads_template.append('end {process_name};'
            .format(process_name=process_name))

    with open(process_name + '.adb', 'w') as ada_file:
        ada_file.write('\n'.join(format_ada_code(taste_template)))

    with open(process_name + '.ads', 'w') as ada_file:
        ada_file.write('\n'.join(format_ada_code(ads_template)))


def write_statement(param, newline):
    ''' Generate the code for the special "write" operator '''
    code = []
    string = ''
    local = []
    basic_type = find_basic_type(param.exprType) or {}
    type_kind = basic_type.kind
    if type_kind.endswith('StringType'):
        if isinstance(param, ogAST.PrimStringLiteral):
            # Raw string
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            string = '"' + param.value[1:-1].replace('"', "'") + '"'
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        else:
            # XXX Cannot print an octet string like that...
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            code, string, local = expression(param)
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    elif type_kind in ('IntegerType', 'RealType',
                       'BooleanType', 'Integer32Type'):
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        code, string, local = expression(param)
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        if type_kind == 'IntegerType':
            cast = "Interfaces.Integer_64"
        elif type_kind == 'RealType':
            cast = 'Long_Float'
        elif type_kind == 'BooleanType':
            cast = 'Boolean'
        elif type_kind == 'Integer32Type':
            cast = 'Integer'
        string = "{cast}'Image({s})".format(cast=cast, s=string)
    else:
        error = ('Unsupported parameter in write call ' +
                param.inputString)
        LOG.error(error)
        raise TypeError(error)
    code.append('Put{line}({string});'.format(
        line='_Line' if newline else '',
        string=string))
    return code, string, local


@generate.register(ogAST.Output)
@generate.register(ogAST.ProcedureCall)
def _call_external_function(output):
    ''' Generate the code of a set of output or procedure call statement '''
    code = []
    local_decl = []

    # Add the traceability information
    code.extend(traceability(output))

    for out in output.output:
        signal_name = out['outputName']

        if signal_name.lower() in ('write', 'writeln'):
            # special built-in SDL procedure for printing strings
            # supports printing of native types (int, real, bool)
            # but not yet complex ASN.1 structures (sequence/seqof/choice)
            for param in out['params'][:-1]:
                stmts, _, local = write_statement(param, newline=False)
                code.extend(stmts)
                local_decl.extend(local)
            for param in out['params'][-1:]:
                # Last parameter - add newline if necessary
                stmts, _, local = write_statement(param, newline=True if
                        signal_name.lower() == 'writeln' else False)
                code.extend(stmts)
                local_decl.extend(local)
            continue
        elif signal_name.lower() == 'reset_timer':
            # built-in operator for resetting timers. param = timer name
            param, = out['params']
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            p_code, p_id, p_local = expression(param)
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            code.extend(p_code)
            local_decl.extend(p_local)
            code.append('RESET_{};'.format(p_id))
            continue
        elif signal_name.lower() == 'set_timer':
            # built-in operator for setting a timer: SET(1000, timer_name)
            timer_value, timer_id = out['params']
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            t_code, t_val, t_local = expression(timer_value)
            p_code, p_id, p_local = expression(timer_id)
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            code.extend(t_code)
            code.extend(p_code)
            local_decl.extend(t_local)
            local_decl.extend(p_local)
            # Use a temporary variable to store the timer value
            tmp_id = 'tmp' + str(out['tmpVars'][0])
            local_decl.append('{} : aliased asn1SccT_Uint32;'.format(tmp_id))
            code.append('{tmp} := {val};'.format(tmp=tmp_id, val=t_val))
            code.append("SET_{timer}({value}'access);"
                                             .format(timer=p_id, value=tmp_id))
            continue
        proc, out_sig = None, None
        try:
            out_sig, = [sig for sig in OUT_SIGNALS
                        if sig['name'].lower() == signal_name.lower()]
        except ValueError:
            # Not an output, try if it is an external procedure
            try:
                out_sig, = [sig for sig in PROCEDURES
                            if sig.inputString.lower() == signal_name.lower()]
            except ValueError:
                # Not external? Must be an inner procedure then.
                # otherwise the parser would have barked
                proc, = [sig for sig in INNER_PROCEDURES
                     if sig.inputString.lower() == signal_name.lower()]
        if out_sig:
            list_of_params = []
            for idx, param in enumerate(out.get('params') or []):
                param_direction = 'in'
                try:
                    # If it is an output, there is a single parameter
                    param_type = out_sig['type']
                except TypeError:
                    # Else if it is a procedure, get the type
                    param_type = out_sig.fpar[idx]['type']
                    param_direction = out_sig.fpar[idx]['direction']

                typename = param_type.ReferencedTypeName.replace('-', '_')
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                p_code, p_id, p_local = expression(param)
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                code.extend(p_code)
                local_decl.extend(p_local)
                # Create a temporary variable for input parameters only
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                # (If needed, i.e. if argument is not a local variable)
                if param_direction == 'in' \
                and (not (isinstance(param, ogAST.PrimVariable) and
                p_id.startswith('l_')) or isinstance(param, ogAST.PrimFPAR)):
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                    tmp_id = out['tmpVars'][idx]
                    local_decl.append('tmp{idx} : aliased asn1Scc{oType};'
                                      .format(idx=tmp_id, oType=typename))
                    code.append('tmp{idx} := {p_id};'
                                .format(idx=tmp_id, p_id=p_id))
                    list_of_params.append("tmp{idx}'access"
                                          .format(idx=out['tmpVars'][idx]))
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                else:
                    # Output parameters - no need for a temp variable
                    list_of_params.append("{var}'access".format(var=p_id))
            if list_of_params:
                code.append('{RI}({params});'.format(
                    RI=out['outputName'], params=', '.join(list_of_params)))
            else:
                code.append('{RI};'.format(RI=out['outputName']))
        else:
            # inner procedure call
            list_of_params = []
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            for param in out.get('params', []):
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                p_code, p_id, p_local = expression(param)
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                code.extend(p_code)
                local_decl.extend(p_local)
                # no need to use temporary variables, we are in pure Ada
                list_of_params.append(p_id)
            if list_of_params:
                code.append('{proc}({params});'.format(
                    proc=proc.inputString,
                    params=', '.join(list_of_params)))
            else:
                code.append('{};'.format(proc.inputString))
    return code, local_decl


@generate.register(ogAST.TaskAssign)
def _task_assign(task):
    ''' A list of assignments in a task symbol '''
    code, local_decl = [], []
    ada_string = ''
    if task.comment:
        code.extend(traceability(task.comment))
    for expr in task.elems:
        code.extend(traceability(expr))
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        code_assign, ada_string, decl_assign = expression(expr)
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        code.extend(code_assign)
        code.append(ada_string[1:-1] + ';')
        local_decl.extend(decl_assign)
    return code, local_decl


@generate.register(ogAST.TaskInformalText)
def _task_informal_text(task):
    ''' Generate Ada comments for informal text '''
    code = []
    if task.comment:
        code.extend(traceability(task.comment))
    code.extend(['-- ' + text.replace('\n', '\n-- ') for text in task.elems])
    return code, []


@generate.register(ogAST.TaskForLoop)
def _task_forloop(task):
    '''
        Return the code corresponding to a for loop. Two forms are possible:
        for x in range ([start], stop [, step])
        for x in iterable (a SEQUENCE OF)
    '''
    stmt, local_decl = [], []
    if task.comment:
        stmt.extend(traceability(task.comment))
    stmt.extend(traceability(task))
    for loop in task.elems:
        if loop['range']:
            start_str, stop_str = '0', ''
            if loop['range']['start']:
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                start_stmt, start_str, start_local = expression\
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                                                       (loop['range']['start'])
                local_decl.extend(start_local)
                stmt.extend(start_stmt)
                # ASN.1 Integers are 64 bits - we need to convert to 32 bits
                if isinstance(loop['range']['start'], ogAST.PrimInteger):
                    start_str = 'Integer({})'.format(start_str)
            if loop['range']['step'] == 1:
                start_str += '..'
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            stop_stmt, stop_str, stop_local = expression(loop['range']['stop'])
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            local_decl.extend(stop_local)
            stmt.extend(stop_stmt)
            if isinstance(loop['range']['stop'], ogAST.PrimInteger):
                stop_str = 'Integer({})'.format(stop_str)
            if loop['range']['step'] == 1:
                stmt.append(
                       'for {it} in {start}{stop} loop'
                       .format(it=loop['var'], start=start_str, stop=stop_str))
            else:
                # Step is not directly supported in Ada, we need to use 'while'
                stmt.extend(['declare',
                             '{it} : Integer := {start};'
                             .format(it=loop['var'],
                             start=start_str),
                             '',
                             'begin',
                             'while {it} < {stop} loop'.format(it=loop['var'],
                                                               stop=stop_str)])
        else:
            # case of form: FOR x in SEQUENCE OF
            elem_type = loop['type'].ReferencedTypeName.replace('-', '_')
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            list_stmt, list_str, list_local = expression(loop['list'])
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            basic_type = find_basic_type(loop['list'].exprType)
            range_cond = "{}.Data'Range".format(list_str)\
                    if basic_type.Min == basic_type.Max\
                    else "1..{}.Length".format(list_str)
            stmt.extend(list_stmt)
            local_decl.extend(list_local)
            stmt.extend(['declare',
                         '{it} : asn1Scc{it_ty};'.format(it=loop['var'],
                                                         it_ty=elem_type),
                         '',
                         'begin',
                         'for {it}_idx in {rc} loop'.format(it=loop['var'],
                                                            rc=range_cond),
                         '{it} := {var}.Data({it}_idx);'.format(it=loop['var'],
                                                                var=list_str)])
        try:
            code_trans, local_trans = generate(loop['transition'])
            if local_trans:
                stmt.append('declare')
                stmt.extend(local_trans)
                stmt.append('')
                stmt.append('begin')
            stmt.extend(code_trans)
            if local_trans:
                stmt.append('end;')
        except AttributeError:
            stmt.append('null;')
        if loop['range'] and loop['range']['step'] != 1:
            stmt.append('{it} := {it} + {step};'.format(it=loop['var'],
                                                   step=loop['range']['step']))
        stmt.append('end loop;')
        if (loop['range'] and loop['range']['step'] != 1) or loop['list']:
            stmt.append('end;')
    return stmt, local_decl


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@singledispatch
def expression(expr):
    ''' Generate the code for Expression-classes, returning 3 things:
        - list of statements
        - useable string corresponding to the evaluation of the expression,
        - list of local declarations
    '''
    _ = expr
    raise TypeError('Unsupported expression: ' + str(expr))
    return [], '', []

@expression.register(ogAST.PrimVariable)
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def _primary_variable(prim):
    ''' Single variable reference '''
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    sep = 'l_' if find_var(prim.value[0]) else ''
    return [], '{sep}{name}'.format(sep=sep, name=prim.value[0]), []
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@expression.register(ogAST.PrimPath)
def _prim_path(primary_id):
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    '''
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        Return the Ada string of an element list (path)
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        cases: a => 'l_a' (reference to a variable)
        a_timer => 'a_timer'  (reference to a timer)
        a!b => a.b (field of a structure)
        a!b if a is a CHOICE => TypeOfa_b_get(a)
        a(Expression) => a(ExpressionSolver) (array index)
        Expression can be complex (if-then-else-fi..)
    '''
    ada_string = ''
    stmts, local_decl = [], []

    # If first element is not a variable (can be a timer) do not add prefix
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    sep = 'l_' if find_var(primary_id.value[0]) else ''
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    sub_id = []
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    for pr_id in primary_id.value:
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        if type(pr_id) is not dict:
            if pr_id.lower() == 'length':
                special_op = 'Length'
                continue
            elif pr_id.lower() == 'present':
                special_op = 'ChoiceKind'
                continue
            elif pr_id.lower() == 'abs':
                special_op = 'Abs'
                continue
            special_op = ''
            parent_kind, parent_typename = path_type(sub_id)
            sub_id.append(pr_id)
            if parent_kind == 'ChoiceType':
                ada_string = ('asn1Scc{typename}_{p_id}_get({ada_string})'
                        .format(typename=parent_typename,
                                p_id=pr_id, ada_string=ada_string))
            else:
                ada_string += sep + pr_id
        else:
            if 'substring' in pr_id:
                # substring: two parameters (range)
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                r1_stmts, r1_string, r1_local = \
                        expression(pr_id['substring'][0])
                r2_stmts, r2_string, r2_local = \
                        expression(pr_id['substring'][1])
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                # should we add 1 in case of numerical values? (see index)
                ada_string += '.Data({r1}..{r2})'.format(
                                                r1=r1_string, r2=r2_string)
                stmts.extend(r1_stmts)
                stmts.extend(r2_stmts)
                local_decl.extend(r1_local)
                local_decl.extend(r2_local)
                _, parent_typename = path_type(sub_id)
                local_decl.append('tmp{idx} : aliased asn1Scc{parent_type};'
                          .format(idx=pr_id['tmpVar'],
                              parent_type=parent_typename))
                # XXX types with fixed length: substrings will not work
                if unicode.isnumeric(r1_string) and unicode.isnumeric(
                                                                r2_string):
                    length = int(r2_string) - int(r1_string) + 1
                else:
                    length = ('{r2} - {r1} + 1'
                        .format(r2=r2_string, r1=r1_string))
                stmts.append('tmp{idx}.Length := {length};'
                        .format(idx=pr_id['tmpVar'], length=length))

                stmts.append('tmp{idx}.Data(1..{length}) := {data};'
                        .format(idx=pr_id['tmpVar'],
                            length=length, data=ada_string))
                ada_string = 'tmp{idx}'.format(idx=pr_id['tmpVar'])
            elif 'index' in pr_id:
                # index is a list but it can have only one element
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                idx_stmts, idx_string, local_var = expression(
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                        pr_id['index'][0])
                if unicode.isnumeric(idx_string):
                    idx_string = int(idx_string) + 1
                else:
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                    idx_string = '1+Integer({idx})'.format(idx=idx_string)
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                ada_string += '.Data({idx})'.format(idx=idx_string)
                stmts.extend(idx_stmts)
                local_decl.extend(local_var)
            elif 'procParams' in pr_id:
                if special_op == 'Abs':
                    # Return absolute value of a number
                    exp, = pr_id['procParams']
                    exp_type = find_basic_type(exp.exprType)
                    if exp_type.kind not in ('IntegerType', 'RealType'):
                        error = ('{} must be a number to return absolute value'
                                .format(exp.inputString))
                        LOG.error(error)
                        raise TypeError(error)
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                    param_stmts, param_str, local_var = expression(exp)
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                    stmts.extend(param_stmts)
                    local_decl.extend(local_var)
                    ada_string += 'abs(' + param_str + ')'

                elif special_op == 'Length':
                    # Length of sequence of: take only the first parameter
                    exp, = pr_id['procParams']
                    exp_type = find_basic_type(exp.exprType)
                    min_length = getattr(exp_type, 'Min', None)
                    max_length = getattr(exp_type, 'Max', None)
                    if min_length is None or max_length is None:
                        error = '{} is not a SEQUENCE OF'.format(
                                exp.inputString)
                        LOG.error(error)
                        raise TypeError(error)
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                    param_stmts, param_str, local_var = expression(
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                            exp)
                    stmts.extend(param_stmts)
                    local_decl.extend(local_var)
                    if min_length == max_length:
                        ada_string += min_length
                    else:
                        ada_string += ('Interfaces.Integer_64({e}.Length)'
                                .format(e=param_str))
                elif special_op == 'ChoiceKind':
                    # User wants to know what CHOICE element is present
                    exp, = pr_id['procParams']
                    # Get the basic type to make sure it is a choice
                    exp_type = find_basic_type(exp.exprType)
                    # Also get the ASN.1 type name as it is
                    # needed to build the Ada expression
                    exp_typename = \
                            (getattr(exp.exprType, 'ReferencedTypeName',
                                 None) or exp.exprType.kind).replace('-', '_')
                    if exp_type.kind != 'ChoiceType':
                        error = '{} is not a CHOICE'.format(exp.inputString)
                        LOG.error(error)
                        raise TypeError(error)
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                    param_stmts, param_str, local_var = expression(
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                            exp)
                    stmts.extend(param_stmts)
                    local_decl.extend(local_var)
                    ada_string += ('asn1Scc{t}_Kind({e})'.format(
                        t=exp_typename, e=param_str))
                else:
                    ada_string += '('
                    # Take all params and join them with commas
                    list_of_params = []
                    for param in pr_id['procParams']:
                        param_stmt, param_str, local_var = (
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                                expression(param))
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                        list_of_params.append(param_str)
                        stmts.extend(param_stmt)
                        local_decl.extend(local_var)
                    ada_string += ', '.join(list_of_params)
                    ada_string += ')'
        sep = '.'
    return stmts, ada_string, local_decl


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@expression.register(ogAST.ExprPlus)
@expression.register(ogAST.ExprMul)
@expression.register(ogAST.ExprMinus)
@expression.register(ogAST.ExprEq)
@expression.register(ogAST.ExprNeq)
@expression.register(ogAST.ExprGt)
@expression.register(ogAST.ExprGe)
@expression.register(ogAST.ExprLt)
@expression.register(ogAST.ExprLe)
@expression.register(ogAST.ExprDiv)
@expression.register(ogAST.ExprMod)
@expression.register(ogAST.ExprRem)
@expression.register(ogAST.ExprAssign)
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def _basic_operators(expr):
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    ''' Expressions with two sides '''
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    code, local_decl = [], []
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    left_stmts, left_str, left_local = expression(expr.left)
    right_stmts, right_str, right_local = expression(expr.right)
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    ada_string = '({left} {op} {right})'.format(
            left=left_str, op=expr.operand, right=right_str)
    code.extend(left_stmts)
    code.extend(right_stmts)
    local_decl.extend(left_local)
    local_decl.extend(right_local)
    return code, ada_string, local_decl

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@expression.register(ogAST.ExprOr)
@expression.register(ogAST.ExprAnd)
@expression.register(ogAST.ExprXor)
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def _bitwise_operators(expr):
    ''' Logical operators '''
    code, local_decl = [], []
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    left_stmts, left_str, left_local = expression(expr.left)
    right_stmts, right_str, right_local = expression(expr.right)
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    basic_type = find_basic_type(expr.exprType)
    if basic_type.kind != 'BooleanType':
        # Sequence of boolean or bit string
        if expr.right.is_raw:
            # Declare a temporary variable to store the raw value
            tmp_string = 'tmp{}'.format(expr.right.tmpVar)
            local_decl.append('{tmp} : aliased asn1Scc{eType};'.format(
                        tmp=tmp_string,
                        eType=expr.right.exprType.ReferencedTypeName
                        .replace('-', '_')))
            code.append('{tmp} := {right};'.format(tmp=tmp_string,
                                                  right=right_str))
            right_str = tmp_string
        ada_string = '(Data => ({left}.Data {op} {right}.Data)'.format(
                left=left_str, op=expr.operand, right=right_str)
        if basic_type.Min != basic_type.Max:
            ada_string += ", Length => {left}.Length".format(left=left_str)
        ada_string += ')'
    else:
        ada_string = '({left} {op} {right})'.format(
                               left=left_str, op=expr.operand, right=right_str)
    code.extend(left_stmts)
    code.extend(right_stmts)
    local_decl.extend(left_local)
    local_decl.extend(right_local)
    return code, ada_string, local_decl

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@expression.register(ogAST.ExprAppend)
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def _append(expr):
    ''' Generate code for the APPEND construct: a // b '''
    stmts, ada_string, local_decl = [], '', []
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#    basic_type_expr = find_basic_type(expr.exprType)
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    # We can do a length check if both strings are literals
    # XXX should be already done by the parser
#   if(expr.right.kind == 'primary'
#      and expr.right.var.kind == 'stringLiteral'
#      and expr.left.kind == 'primary'
#      and expr.left.var.kind == 'stringLiteral'
#      and len(expr.right.var.stringLiteral[1:-1]) +
#      len(expr.left.var.stringLiteral[1:-1]) > basic_type_expr.Max):
#       raise ValueError('String concatenation exceeds container length: '
#               'length(' + expr.left.var.stringLiteral[1:-1] +
#               expr.right.var.stringLiteral[1:-1] + ') > ' +
#               str(basic_type_expr.Max))

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    left_stmts, left_str, left_local = expression(expr.left)
    right_stmts, right_str, right_local = expression(expr.right)
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    stmts.extend(left_stmts)
    stmts.extend(right_stmts)
    local_decl.extend(left_local)
    local_decl.extend(right_local)
    # Declare a temporary variable to hold the result of the append
    ada_string = 'tmp{}'.format(expr.tmpVar)
    local_decl.append('{tmp} : aliased asn1Scc{eType};'.format(
                    tmp=ada_string,
                    eType=expr.exprType.ReferencedTypeName
                    .replace('-', '_')))

    # If right or left is raw, declare a temporary variable for it, too
    for sexp, sid in zip((expr.right, expr.left), (right_str, left_str)):
        if sexp.is_raw:
            local_decl.append('tmp{idx} : aliased asn1Scc{eType};'.format(
                    idx=sexp.tmpVar,
                    eType=sexp.exprType.ReferencedTypeName
                    .replace('-', '_')))
            stmts.append('tmp{idx} := {s_id};'.format(
                idx=sexp.tmpVar, s_id=sid))
            sexp.sid = 'tmp' + str(sexp.tmpVar)
            # Length of raw string - update for sequence of
            if isinstance(sexp, ogAST.PrimStringLiteral):
                sexp.slen = len(sexp.value[1:-1])
            elif isinstance(sexp, ogAST.PrimEmptyString):
                sexp.slen = 0
            elif isinstance(sexp, ogAST.PrimSequenceOf):
                sexp.slen = len(sexp.value)
            else:
                raise TypeError('Not a string/Sequence in APPEND')
        else:
            sexp.sid = sid
            basic = find_basic_type(sexp.exprType)
            if basic.Min == basic.Max:
                # Fixed-size string
                sexp.slen = basic.Max
            else:
                # Variable-size types have a Length field
                sexp.slen = '{}.Length'.format(sexp.sid)
    stmts.append('{res}.Data(1..{l1}) := {lid}.Data(1..{l1});'.format(
                res=ada_string, l1=expr.left.slen, lid=expr.left.sid))
    stmts.append('{res}.Data({l1}+1..{l1}+{l2}) := {rid}.Data(1..{l2});'
                .format(res=ada_string, l1=expr.left.slen,
                rid=expr.right.sid, l2=expr.right.slen))
    stmts.append('{res}.Length := {l1} + {l2};'.format(
                res=ada_string, l1=expr.left.slen, l2=expr.right.slen))
    return stmts, ada_string, local_decl


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@expression.register(ogAST.ExprIn)
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def _expr_in(expr):
    ''' IN expressions: check if item is in a SEQUENCE OF '''
    # Check if item is in a SEQUENCE OF
    # Temporary variable needed to hold the test result
    ada_string = 'tmp{}'.format(expr.tmpVar)
    stmts = []
    local_decl = ['{} : BOOLEAN := False;'.format(ada_string)]
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    left_stmts, left_str, left_local = expression(expr.left)
    right_stmts, right_str, right_local = expression(expr.right)
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